please respond to each discussion post very detailed and organized with apa references Thank you!
There are a multitude of populations that have higher levels of tuberculosis, and one of those populations include the homeless (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). Overcrowding and poor adherence to treatment are among the reasons that the homeless are at risk (Lee et al., 2022). Because of this identified risk, the county of Los Angeles in California has adopted specific policies to help identify those who are symptomatic and keep those who are already in shelters safe. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Program (2013) delineates a policy on screening, referring and monitoring for those who are homeless and with symptoms of tuberculosis. It also provides for referrals to public clinics who can provide for evaluations and medications as well as case management services. It also gives mention of providing short-term single room housing as needed.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2022). TB in specific populations. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/populations/default.htm
Lee, J. Y., Kwon, N., Goo, G. Y., & Cho, S. I. (2022). Inadequate housing and pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review. BMC public health, 22(1), 622.
Los Angeles County Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Program (2013). Preventing tuberculosis (TB) in homeless shelters: a guide for preventing and controlling TB and other aerosol transmissible diseases in Los Angeles County facilities. http://publichealth.lacounty.gov/tb/docs/latbguidelinesforshelters.pdf
There are many populations that are high risk for contracting tuberculosis (TB). One population that can often be overlooked with high incidence of TB are those that are incarcerated. There are several factors that influence the prevalence of TB in this population including overcrowding, prolonged stays in prison, re-incarceration, co-comorbidities, treatment delays or interruptions, facility transfers, lack of resources, and inadequate policies to protect inmates within the system (Stop TB Partnership, n.d.). Although the occurrence of TB has decreased over the last two decades in this population, there were 179 cases or 2.3% reported in ages fifteen and older in 2021 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2022). In local jails, the number of reported cases increased from 23% TO 31.3% in 2021, the largest increase among facility type (CDC, 2022). The CDC currently has policies in place that require specific protocols to allow for quick identification and treatment of this population. Policies currently in place include early identification and screenings, treatment of active and latent infections, appropriate use of isolation and personal protective equipment, comprehensive discharge planning, and effective contract tracing (CDC, 2022). Despite the overall low rates here within the United States, globally incarcerated however have an estimated 4500 cases out of every 100,000 that are incarcerated (Stop TB Partnership, n.d.). The World Health Organization and the United Nations on Drugs and Crime have developed policies to guide to support developing countries obtain resources to support their incarcerated and advocate for their rights to obtain healthcare (Stop TB Partnership, n.d.). Domestically and internationally, the incarcerated should have equal access to healthcare services to screen, protect, and treat to decrease the incidence of TB.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2022, November 10). TB and correctional facilities in the United States. https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/populations/correctional/default.htm
Stop TB Partnership. (n.d.). Key populations brief: prisoners. Stop TB. https://stoptb.org/assets/documents/resources/publications/acsm/KPBrief_Prisoners_ENG_WEB.pdf
Over-the-counter (OTC) vitamins are widely available and easily accessible. The internet and social media have made everything even easier to acquire. Studies have even shown that internet search volumes have increased significantly overtime (Kaminski et al, 2020). While vitamins and minerals are generally thought of as beneficial, everything we do must be done in moderation. The downside of the internet is the availability of false information. Individuals can be steered in the wrong direction without the guidance of a health care provider. Dietary use of supplements had increased from 51.8%-63.7% in 2010 from 2005 and because of this, 15.1% of older adults were at risk for possible significant drug interaction in 2010 when compared to 8.4% in 2005 (Qato et al, 2016).
A personal story to relate to this: a close friend of mine has a mother who sustained a subarachnoid bleed who was previously generally healthy except for HTN and hyperlipidemia. When the family went to her house to gather her medications for a med rec, they found 34 bottles of OTC vitamins and supplements. The mom admitted to taking all of them regularly because of ads she found on social media. Not once did she every consider how they might affect one other or her body. This stuff happens!
Kamiński, M., Kręgielska-Narożna, M., & Bogdański, P. (2020). Determination of the Popularity of Dietary Supplements Using Google Search Rankings. Nutrients, 12(4), 908. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040908
Qato, D. M., Wilder, J., Schumm, L. P., Gillet, V., & Alexander, G. C. (2016). Changes in Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medication and Dietary Supplement Use Among Older Adults in the United States, 2005 vs 2011. JAMA internal medicine, 176(4), 473–482. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.8581
The current trend of OTC vitamins is that patients who take them don’t always disclose it to their providers. This lack of communication may lead to interactions such as false laboratory test readings or myocardial infarction (Simundic et al., 2018). This particular study also found that the populations who used OTC vitamins were middle-aged and mostly women. It points out that not only are patients not aware of possible interactions, but so are caregivers. More education should be provided to patients and caregivers.
Looking at another study, most patients who were taking OTC vitamins were found to be between the ages of 20-40 years. Their study also found that majority of those taking the medications were women (Alkhalidi et al., 2021). This study points out that there are several cultures involved. They pointed out that most of the consumers were self-directed and only some were recommended by a physician. Similar to the previously mentioned study, this one also recommends more education especially for patients who may decide to take vitamins out of their own volition.
Alkhalidi, D. K., Jawad, R. M., Alsamak, M. J., Ahmed, M. M., & Aslam, A. (2021). An exploration of individual knowledge and behavior for utilizing otc drugs and dietary supplements for health enhancement: an empirical analysis from dubai. Pharmacy Practice, 19(4), 2564–2564.
Simundic, A.-M., Filipi, P., Vrtaric, A., Miler, M., Nikolac Gabaj, N., Kocsis, A., Avram, S., Gligorovic Barhanovic, N., Bulo, A., Cadamuro, J., van Dongen-Lases, E., Eker, P., Vital-E-Silva, A., Homsak, E., Ibarz, M., Labudovic, D., Nybo, M., Pivovarníková, H., Shmidt, I., … Vitkus, D. (2018). Patient’s knowledge and awareness about the effect of the over-the-counter (otc) drugs and dietary supplements on laboratory test results: a survey in 18 european countries. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 57(2), 183–194. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2018-0579