The Cold War had some armed conflicts but could in some sense be regarded as primarily a conflict of ideologies. The Soviet ideology called for the state control of the economy and political rule by a Communist Party to represent the “proletariat” – the workers. The Soviets believed that Scientific Socialism would eventually be adopted worldwide. This was opposed by the “Liberal Democracies” of the West who saw an important role for private initiative in the economy and who had forms of parliamentary democracy with several competing political parties. They, too, believed that this kind of ideology would spread all around the world.
The old Cold War has ended. But it could be said that we are presently in another kind of Cold War. The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria has established a “Caliphate” which is meant to rule over all Muslims in the world. What similarities and differences do you see between the old and new “Cold Wars”?