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Sites for Metastasis

The most common site for metastasis of pancreatic cancer is the lungs. Other sites are the liver and lining of the abdominal cavity.

Tumor Cell Markers

Tumor cell markers are proteins that are produced by tumor cells. They can be detected in the blood, urine, or other body fluids. Tumor cell markers help diagnose pancreatic cancer, find out if cancer has spread, and check how well treatment works (Liu et al., 2022). Examples of these markers include Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), C-reactive protein (CRP), Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and Pancreatic somatostatin (PSS).

TNM Stage classification

T4N1M1 – Stage IV

The TNM stage classification system is used to stage cancer. The TNM system consists of three components: the tumor (T), the node (N), and the metastasis (M) (Lim et al., 2018). The tumor (T) refers to the size and location of the primary tumor. The node (N) refers to the spread of cancer to other body parts. The metastasis (M) refers to how far cancer has spread from its original site. Knowledge of the cancerous stage helps determine the right type of medication to minister to a patient. Hb 12.7 g/dl; – low, and Bil T 1.90 mg/dl – elevated

Characteristics of Malignant Tumors

Malignant tumors are typically classified according to their cells: epithelial, mesenchymal, or sarcoma (Maru et al., 2021). These types of tumors grow quickly and often spread to other body parts. They are also more likely to recur. Cancer cells typically have a characteristic appearance on medical imaging tests such as CAT scans and MRI scans. They are often round or oval, with a slightly raised center. Cancer cells that have spread to other body parts may be more irregular in shape and may contain more cytoplasm than cancer.

Malignant cells are often cells that develop quickly and have inadequate boundaries between themselves. In addition, they can dislodge themselves from the malignancy and spread out (metastasize), either directly or using the circulatory and lymphatic systems.

Tumor Metastasizes

The uncontrolled growth of cancer cells characterizes the carcinogenesis phase. This phase is characterized by forming new blood vessels, supplying the cancer cells with the nutrients they need to grow and spread. The cancer cells may invade surrounding tissues and organs and metastasize to other body parts (Alshewered, 2021). Untreated, the cancer cells in the carcinogenesis phase may eventually grow large enough to cause serious health problems.

An irreversible change in the genetic code causes the process of initiation. This change is usually the consequence of one or more elementary genetic alterations, transversions, crossovers, or minor chromosomal aberrations in the DNA. At a minimum, the process of carcinogenesis may be broken down into three stages: the initial stage, the promotion stage, and the advancement stage.

Affected Tissue

The affected tissue is the epithelial tissue.

Essential molecular selections throughout the carcinogenesis phases include proto-oncogenes, cellular oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes. Changes in both alleles of the tumor suppressor genes are only detected in the progression stage of the disease. Islets of Langerhans make up the endocrine portion of the pancreas; hence these cells are epithelial. The contents of the acini are expelled via ducts that are coated with a cube-like epithelium.


Alshewered, A. S. (2021). Are we Fight Cancer Cells or Human Cells? 
J Tum Res Reports
pp. 6, 146.

Lim, W., Ridge, C. A., Nicholson, A. G., & Mirsadraee, S. (2018). The eighth lung cancer TNM classification and clinical staging system: a review of the changes and clinical implications. 
Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
8(7), 709–718.
Links to an external site.

Liu, X., Ren, Y., Wang, J., Yang, X., & Lu, L. (2022). The Clinical Diagnostic Value of F-FDG PET/CT Combined with MRI in Pancreatic Cancer. 
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
2022, e1479416.
Links to an external site.

Maru, Y., Tanaka, N., Tatsumi, Y., Nakamura, Y., Itami, M., & Hippo, Y. (2021). Kras activation in endometrial organoids drives cellular transformation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. 
10(6), 1–12.

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