Racial and Ethnic Profiling, Profiling Response

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Racial and Ethnic Profiling

Racial profiling* is defined by Chan
(2011) as any government activity—including surveillance, search and seizure,
questioning, detainment, and arrest—directed at a specific individual or group
based solely on race or ethnicity. The United States has engaged in racial
profiling. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, Japanese immigrants and
American citizens of Japanese descent were relocated to internment camps because
of their race. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States,
individuals of Middle Eastern descent were often targeted for “routine”
searches and questioning at airports. Racial profiling can be a controversial
topic both within criminal justice and among the general public.

For this Discussion, you explore the
practice and impacts of racial profiling and consider whether it is ever
justifiable. Be aware that your colleagues in this course may have different
viewpoints than your own. Please be respectful in your posts and responses to

*Racial profiling
includes profiling based on race and/or ethnicity

Post by
Day 4
a description of
at least two racial or ethnic minority groups that are regularly profiled by
law enforcement. Then explain possible impacts on the criminal justice system
of profiling the two groups you described. Finally, explain whether or not it
is ever justifiable for law enforcement to profile individuals based on race or
ethnicity. Justify your position with references to the literature and Learning

One and a half page with
at least two reference….

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the
assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT
presenting an explanation from the readings.

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for
this assignments 1) look at the page limits 2) review and follow APA rules
3) create SUBHEADINGS to identify the key sections you are presenting and
4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


  • Course Text: Investigating
    Difference: Human and Cultural Relations in Criminal Justice
    • Chapter 8, “The
      Significance of Race: African Americans and Criminal Justice”
    • Chapter 9, “Unwelcome
      Citizens: Latinos and the Criminal Justice System”
  • Article: Brennan,
    P. K., & Valdenberg, A. L. (2009). Depictions of female offenders in
    front-page newspaper stories: The importance of race/ethnicity. International
    Journal of Social Inquiry
    , 2(2), 141–175. 
  • Article:
    Chan, J. (2011). Racial profiling and police subculture. Canadian
    Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice
    , 53(1), 75–78.
  • Article:
    Frieburger, T., Marcum, C., & Pierce, M. (2010). The impact of race on
    the pretrial decision. American Journal of Criminal Justice,
    (1/2), 76–86.
  • Article: Hurwitz,
    J., & Peffley, M. (2010). And justice for some: Race, crime, and
    punishment in the US criminal justice system. Canadian Journal of
    Political Science
    , 43, 457–479.
  • Article: Kamalu,
    N. C., Coulson-Clark, M., & Kamalu, N. M. (2010). Racial disparities
    in sentencing: Implications for the criminal justice system and the
    African American community. African Journal of Criminology and Justice
    , 4(1), 1–30. 
  • Article:
    Pickerill, J. M., Mosher, C., & Pratt, T. (2009). Search and seizure,
    racial profiling, and traffic stops: A disparate impact framework. Law
    & Policy
    , 31(1), 1–30.
  • Article:
    Ward, G., Farrell, A., & Rousseau, D. (2009). Does racial balance in
    workforce representation yield equal justice? Race relations of sentencing
    in federal court organizations. Law & Society Review, 43,

  • Article:
    Spalek, B. (2005). British Muslims and community safety post-September
    11th. Community Safety Journal, 4(2), 12–20.
  • Article:
    Gold, A. D. (2003). Media hype, racial profiling, and good science. Canadian
    Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 45
    (3), 391–399.
  • Article:
    Volpp, L. (2002). Critical race studies: The citizen and the terrorist. UCLA
    Law Review, 49
  • Article:
    Welch, K. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling. Journal
    of Contemporary Criminal Justice
    , 23(3), 276–288.


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