Application: Immunization Registry Case Study.
Your assignment is to create and organize the categories and subcategories of information that you would need for an immunization registry database. For instance, in a larger category of “Patient Data,” you might include contact information such as name, address, and phone number; demographic information such as age and gender; and health information such as allergies and conditions.What other patient data should be included in your database?
In a larger category of “Vaccine,” you might divide an MMR vaccine into separate antigens, such as measles, mumps, and rubella. What other larger categories must be included? What challenges do you encounter in organizing the data? Refer to Chapter 22 of your course textbook for more ideas .(Public Health Informatics and Information systes by Patric W. O’Carroll, William A. Yasnoff, M. Elizabeth Ward, Laura H. Ripp, Ernest L. Martin).
You may want to organize your information using tables in a word processing document. Include the following:
- An introductory paragraph detailing the purpose and parameters of the database.
- The organized categories and subcategories of data.
- The beginnings of a communication plan, listing the individuals and groups you will need to communicate with to gather information and ensure that you have the correct data.
- A summary paragraph which details the challenges you encountered in determining how the data would be organized.
Welcome to Week 3. Congratulations on surviving two weeks already. Believe me there’s more fun with the course when you resolve some of the initial distracting (perhaps technical) issues. Again, there are two activities this week. They include: 1. Regular Discussion/Response/s; details are given below; 2. The Application paper which is posted directly into Turnitin per Blackboard classroom requirement. (As you have seen already in Week 2, there are no Drop Boxes). The good thing is you post only once. (Of course, before your final post, make sure you post to “Drafts” first to obtain a score from Turnitin. That way, if you are red flagged you should be able to correct it before your final post). Remember to limit the flag to 20% or lower
Now, let me introduce this week’s topic, “Databases”. A database is where and how data are stored for any information system. This section is from your eClassroom. “An information system is only powerful when you have the ability to extract meaningful data from it in a usable format and efficient process. As you learned last week, developing appropriate database architecture is very important. Once the structure or architecture of an information system is in place, the database itself can be designed.”
Instructor guide: This week, you will examine the most commonly used type of database – the relational database. (Examples are: uses in health – like the immunization records; personnel data – to store human resources or worker’s information; financial services – as in many banking systems; and many more). Relational databases have often replaced legacy flat files, hierarchical databases and network databases because they are easier to understand and use, even though they are much less efficient than some legacy databases. Most people interact with relational databases on a regular basis often without being aware of it. Online shopping, a doctor’s or health insurance company’s patient information database, and online banking information are all examples of the use of relational databases. So what is a relational database?
A relational database matches data by using a common characteristic – called relation – found within the data set. A relation is usually described as a table, organized into rows and columns. To show relations there must be two or more tables. So a relational database model (contains more than one entity and) is an entity relationship model where the table is the entity, the
of the table are the instances (for example a given person) or the record and the
of the table are the attributes
(such as his/her name, social security number, age, height, weight) or characteristics associated and defined for that instance/record. With this tabular format in mind then, the resulting groups of data (such as all the patients being described and say, the medications they take) are organized in tables. Here, for instance there may be two tables, one table is for the patient and the other is for the medication. There will be a relation between these two tables, so we can for instance associate given patient with a given or more medications. So, putting data in these table formats and showing their relationship/s are much easier for most people and computers to understand.
Here’s an example: an executable code is a procedure (usually stored in the database) for dealing with the database (the tables). A very quick way of retrieving data from the table-entity (or querying the database) is through an index, (or key) and indices – keys (plural) which is/are [an] executable code/s. These can be created by different combinations of attributes of a given relation, and help with capturing the relation of the tables or entities.
Your next step is to look at data models defined in the video, then you must define the criteria, the key issues in designing databases as well as the importance of testing with real-world data. The goal is to equip you as a public health administrator, who should guide your IT development staff through the business and public health requirements, for the design of relational databases. With this goal in mind, you will also be able to evaluate a database design.
Below are the two assignments for the week
1. Application – I have provided you with some hints (guides) on how you could write your Application paper for this week. As you will see in the Application guide I gave you below, I tried to integrate almost everything you have learned from your readings especially and part of the video. (I addressed more of the video in my Discussion sample).
Please write APA style short narratives/essays and do no not list the data, and or submit bulleted points or number your points
. You must show relations. So, please set the data categories and sub-categories as table/s, but note too that the tables do not count in the page limits!
2. Discussion – Please see my sample (hint for) Discussion – to be posted on the Discussion page in the Blackboard Classroom as well as read the guide below. Please use your style, knowledge and readings to put together a response. Mine is only one way of presenting the information. The content or knowledge base of course, will be similar. This Instructor’s Guide (given below) is derived from the Blackboard Classroom, online resources and the textbook (O’Carroll et al, 2003).
A. DISCUSSION Guide
The guide for this week’s discussion posting will be posted later in the Discussion forum. At a minimum, please include every salient point I have included in this piece using 250 – 350 words. (Note that I did not use 350 words and I included all the questions – to allow you flexibility for in-text citations, experiences and additional readings). You do not need to use my style – it’s only a guide. Please write scholastically and apply critical thinking as you can see in my examples. I read chapter 22, watched the video, read the additional material and then put these together. So, please while you can quote me, do not plagiarize me. Use real life examples and or scenarios (
real or imagined
) for your post.
As a matter of fact, I am giving an example (guide/hint) again for Week 3 only because Relational Data base system is difficult for the uninitiated. Also, I want to make sure you are on the right track. You can also opt to go another route as long as you address the questions. You can now read my post in the Discussion page later in the week and when I post it. For the rest of the quarter you should be able to figure out the content required for that week.
B. APPLICATION Guide Immunization Registry Case Study: Your assignment is to create and organize the categories and subcategories of information that you would need for an immunization registry database [using tables]. In other words, you are to create a small immunization registry as a relational database. For instance, in a larger category of “Patient Data,” you might include contact information such as name, address, and phone number; demographic information such as age and gender; and health information such as allergies and conditions. You should answer the question: What other patient data should be included in your database?
In a larger category of “Vaccine,” you might divide an MMR vaccine into separate antigens, such as measles, mumps, and rubella. What other larger categories must be included? Provide responses to this.
Regardless of how you arrive at the categories and sub-categories, the tables with the categories/sub-categories must
. This is key!!!
What challenges do you encounter in organizing the data? The question is directed to the activity
in in organizing the data base. Please do not quote text books or other resources
Refer to Chapter 22 of your course textbook for more ideas. You should organize your information using tables in a word processing document. Please note again: Tables are not included in the page limits!!!!!!!
In the narrative (or essay) please include the following: a). An introductory paragraph detailing the purpose and parameters of the database – including geography –Federal/state or local level; b). The organized categories and subcategories of data and (how they relate) and how data can be meaningfully retrieved; c). The beginnings of a communication plan, listing the individuals and groups you will need to communicate with to gather information and ensure that you have the correct data; d) A summary paragraph which details the challenges you encountered in determining how the data would be organized. Demand for registries is already being created across the country. Note too that: “Key parent and professional organizations have formally endorsed immunization registries, and immunization programs are increasingly incorporating national registry standards of functionality and confidentiality in their registry development efforts.”
: So when you develop your Application paper, please conceptualize what value will be attained by the proper functioning of these components, how the data will transform into information and information into knowledge. Consequently, you are writing a scholastic paper that incorporates the following: A. visualizing (and realizing) the complexity of the relationships that ensure – that children are being immunized and on time and that children often have multiple health needs that would benefit from coordinated, electronic health information systems; B. using public health tools to develop methods to generate, present and communicate data in comprehensible ways that will enable for example, “the estimation of provider-and geography-based coverage, the identification and targeting of public health prevention efforts, and the tracking of the implementation of new vaccine recommendations and recalls;” C. that shows the optimization of the use of the information through proper management of change among the stakeholders, processes and information technology, including of course sustainable funding streams; and D. that integrates (including standards) with other Health Information Systems (avoiding “silo” systems) to encourage sustainability, while maintaining patient privacy and the confidentiality of information.
To this end then, I would urge you to read the pdf file on Relational Database Concepts that I shall be posting on the Announcement page later this week as well. For those who want to read ahead, this is the source of the pdf file:
Relational Database Concepts for Beginners
Please stop at the highlighted line near the bottom of page 4 that says:
“Now ObjectID in BOOKS is related to Book ObjectID in CHECKOUT
5. When complete, save the assignment as instructed in the Blackboard Classroom –
using the naming convention provided
. This Application is due by Day 7 of Week 3.
As always, Good luck!!!