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#6, #7, #12, #15, #28, #32 (…and explain)

6. Instructions related to accessing I/O devices are typically privileged instructions, that is, they can be executed in kernel mode but not in user mode. Give a reason why these instructions are privileged.

7. The family-of-computers idea was introduced in the 1960s with the IBM System/360 mainframes. Is this idea now dead as a doornail or does it live on?

12. Which of the following instructions should be allowed only in kernel mode? (a) Disable all interrupts. (b) Read the time-of-day clock. (c) Set the time-of-day clock. (d) Change the memory map.

15. Consider a computer system that has cache memory, main memory (RAM) and disk, and an operating system that uses virtual memory. It takes 1 nsec to access a word from the cache, 10 nsec to access a word from the RAM, and 10 ms to access a word from the disk. If the cache hit rate is 95% and main memory hit rate (after a cache miss) is 99%, what is the average time to access a word?

28. To a programmer, a system call looks like any other call to a library procedure. Is it important that a programmer know which library procedures result in system calls? Under what circumstances and why?

32. Virtual machines have become very popular for a variety of reasons. Nevertheless, they have some downsides. Name one.


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