Mls : chapter 3 discussion & homework

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 DISCUSSION: After reading chapter 3 and viewing the PowerPoint presentation, please create a post that describes what your important take-ways from this information were and why they were important.   AND PLEASE COMPLETE CHAPTER 3 HOMEWORK

ALL DOCUMENTS ARE ATTACHED TO THIS POST

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)

Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

Learning Activities: Homework Assignment

A. Given the following objectives, select and justify a learning activity that will enable learners to master each objective.

After completion of the instructional activity, the learner will be able to:



Objective

Learning Activity

Justification

1

Describe the principle of DNA sequencing.







2

Interpret a serum protein electrophoresis pattern.







3

Determine the analytical measurement range for serum glucose using the hexokinase method.







4

Evaluate precision data for acceptability.







5

Defend the use of personal protective equipment in the laboratory.







6

Correlate toxicology case studies with laboratory data.







7

Describe the characteristics of an ideal cardiac marker.







8

Justify the need for patient confidentiality.







B. Find one example of a well designed instructional aid and one example of a poorly designed instructional aid. You can look through your course materials, through books, on Internet sites, etc. List the source of the instructional aid and explain why you consider each an example of a well designed or poorly designed instructional aid.

PAGE

1

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

1

Learning Activities

The material presented in this chapter should enable the learner to:

1. Describe the sequence of steps involved in planning an instructional activity.
2. Choose a learning activity that will effectively implement a given course objective.
3. Analyze current lecture techniques and suggest ways to improve them.
4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various learning activities.
5. Describe a flipped classroom learning activity.
6. Distinguish role-playing and simulations by giving an example of each.
7. Describe the benefits of cooperative learning and problem-based learning compared to more

traditional learning activities such as the lecture.
8. Design instructional resources using the criteria given.
9. Discuss the effective use and advantage of the various instructional resources described in the

text.
10. Given an example of a specific instructional aid, evaluate the effectiveness of the aid in

enhancing mastery of the objective by the learner.

THE INSTRUCTIONAL SEQUENCE

Goals: The first step in planning an instructional activity is to identify goals. Goals are statements that
describe the general knowledge skills or attitudes that the learner will possess after the instructional
activity.

Objectives: The next step in instructional planning is writing objectives. Objectives are statements that
describe the specific learning outcomes of an instructional activity and they are written in greater detail
than goals. Objectives specify the observable knowledge, skills or attitudes that the learner is expected
to exhibit after completing an instructional activity. Objectives serve to communicate the instructor’s
intent for a particular learning experience.

Learning Activities: Instructional activities or learning activities are chosen to help the learner master
the objectives. They include such things as lectures, laboratory exercises, demonstrations, and online
instruction.

3

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

2

Evaluation: An evaluation process should be planned to tell the instructor whether or not the learners
were able to master the objectives and whether or not the instructor’s approach was effective in
assisting learners.

INTRODUCTION

Once the goals and objectives for a particular learning experience have been developed, the instructor
can select the resources and learning activities that will enable learners to master the objectives. The
instructor may choose a variety of learning activities to facilitate the learner’s mastery of the objectives.
Learning activities described in this unit include:

 Lecture

 Flipped classroom

 Case studies

 Simulations and role playing

 Cooperative learning

 Problem-based learning

 Online instruction

 Student laboratory

THE LECTURE METHOD

The lecture method represents the most popular learning activity used in the college classroom. It is the
activity that is most familiar to both the learner and the instructor, particularly in formal educational
programs.

Advantages:

 It is the most efficient means of disseminating large quantities of information to any size group.

 The instructor can summarize and organize information from various sources and present material
that is often more current than the learner’s textbook.

 The instructor can augment, clarify, and highlight topics covered in the textbook and relate the
material to other topics covered in the course or in other courses.

 The instructor can convey enthusiasm and interest about a topic.

 From a learner’s perspective, the lecture often requires minimal input or preparation.

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

3

Limitations:

 Because the learner is passive, it is estimated that approximately 80 percent of what is
presented in a lecture is forgotten within 2 months.1 To state it bluntly, “the lecture at its worst
consists of transferring the notes of the teacher to the notebooks of the learners without
passing through the minds of either.”2 This kind of presentation promotes memorization, rather
than problem solving. For this reason, the use of the “flipped classroom” where in the class time
is spent on small group discussion and problem solving exercises is gaining popularity. 3,4

In order to make the lecture more of an active learning process, the instructor should ask questions
during the lecture. Asking questions can serve many purposes: it involves the learner, it provides a
mechanism of feedback for the instructor, and it provides reinforcement and review of the material.

Techniques for effective use of questioning during a lecture include:

 Asking questions at various cognitive levels. Recall questions are useful for review or as a check
of comprehension but should be used in moderation because they tend to promote
memorization.

 Designing questions to elicit more than a simple “yes” or “no” response. Mechanistic questions
and open-ended questions asking “how?” or “why?” are useful in assessing the learner’s
perception of what has been presented and in promoting interpretation skills. Questions can
also be designed to promote analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Often these types of questions
do not have one answer or even a correct answer and they are asked solely to challenge the
learners and promote problem solving.

 Asking questions in a non-threatening and informal manner, providing adequate time for
responding. The instructor should clearly state the question and wait several seconds after
asking a question to elicit responses. If a learner is unable to answer a question, often it can be
reworded or rephrased to draw the learner to the correct answer. In addition, instructors
should avoid answering their own questions as this tends to inhibit learners from responding.

 To minimize the problem of unresponsive learners or having the same learners repeatedly
responding, the instructor can call on other learners in the class in a rotating manner. While this
may threaten a shy learner, this approach may provide an opportunity to strengthen the
learner’s communication skills.

 Audience response systems allow the learner to give rapid and collective feedback to the
instructor and stimulate participation during the lecture. The audience uses a variety of
personal computing devices such as smart phones, laptops or hand held clickers to provide real
time responses. The responses can be entered anonymously or linked to the learner’s name and
can be tabulated instantaneously and easily displayed. The use of the response systems
increases learner engagement and also provides immediate feedback to the instructor regarding
learners’ comprehension of the presented material. 5

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

4

 Another technique that may be useful in increasing learning participation, retention, and
comprehension of the lecture material is for the instructor to pause a couple of times for about
3 minutes during the lecture. During this time, learners are asked to review their notes and
confer with fellow learners for clarification of the material. At the end of the interval, the
instructor can ask if the class has any questions.6

Organization of the Lecture

The development and organization of a lecture should facilitate learning and stimulate interest.
Effective use of lecture time is an important quality in teaching, especially in a clinical laboratory science
curriculum. The dilemma of trying to cover everything can lead to frustration for both instructor and
learner. Some of this pressure can be relieved by organizing the material and preparing handouts

Introduction

The lecture is most effective if it is organized into an introduction, body, and conclusion. The purpose of
the introduction is to arouse curiosity. The introduction should strive to show the learner that what is
going to be presented is both important and relevant. One way to do this is to begin the lecture with a
case study or problem that can be answered or solved by the lecture material. The introduction should
relate the present lecture to past lectures as learning is enhanced when new material is associated with
previously acquired information.7 Many instructors summarize the previous lecture as a foreword to
the present lecture. In addition, the introduction should provide insight into the lecture’s organization.

Body

The body of the lecture should facilitate the retention and application of information and should
promote problem solving. Repetition of key points increases the chance that the material will be
retained. Learners retain images longer than they do words; therefore, using instructional aids can
facilitate learning. Instructional aids also add variety to the lecture. Further, the use of relevant
examples in a lecture enforces the importance of the material and encourages learners to apply the
information to new situations.

Conclusion

In the conclusion, the instructor should summarize the key points, draw the lecture to a close, and
describe future lecture plans. The instructor may want to stop the lecture 5 minutes before the end of
class, to give the learners an opportunity to review their notes and compare their notes to the
objectives. The instructor can then answer any questions that arise from the review. The conclusion of
the lecture should not occur 5 minutes after the period is officially over; it is better to end the class a
few minutes early than to habitually run over the allotted time. After class, it is helpful to make notes
concerning the effectiveness of the lecture, any corrections, learner additions, or ideas to improve the
lecture.

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

5

Delivery of the Lecture

A well-delivered lecture can help make the driest of topics become interesting. Conversely, a potentially
interesting topic and motivated learners can be rendered dull and listless by a poor lecturer. One of the
most important characteristics of a good lecturer is enthusiasm. Maintaining enthusiasm is a continual
process which may become more difficult when the lecture material is given repeatedly. For that
reason, old lectures should be revised every year to update the material and to develop a fresh
approach.

To improve the delivery of the lecture, the instructor should:

 Vary the pitch and tempo to convey enthusiasm and energy.

 Avoid reading the lecture notes to the class.

 Speak with sufficient volume to convey confidence and be audible in the back row of the
classroom.

 Talk to the learners, not at them.

 Establish eye contact with the audience to assess learner comprehension of the material and to
determine whether or not the learners have become bored or distracted.

 Pace the presentation so that learners to take notes and process the information. Pauses can be
effective and allow time for note-taking as long as they are not used excessively.

 Avoid nervous phrases and habits. Phrases such as “Um” and “okay” and habits such as tapping
a pencil and waving a pointer are distracting to the learners and detract from the quality of the
lecture. Lecturers may need to make conscious efforts to remove these habits and phrases from
their speech patterns.

 Periodically, move around the front of the room but do not pace or wander aimlessly.

 Assume good posture and expressive facial features that have a positive impact on a lecture.

Recording the Lecture

There are a variety of technologies available to allow a lecture to be recorded (“captured”) live and
made available on line to learners. Studies have shown that learners prefer courses that enable this
feature. 7 Advantages to the learner include: the ability to access the lecture anytime; the ability to fast
forward over content that is familiar, and to be able to pause, rewind and review content that is
difficult. Disadvantages to lecturing capturing include concern that students will not attend classroom
lectures or may not fully engage in the classroom lecture knowing that a recorded session is available. 8

THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM

In a flipped classroom, new material is presented prior to the class meeting using online video lectures,
podcasts or reading assignments. The class time is then spent integrating the basic knowledge into
higher level cognitive skills such as analysis, application, evaluation and synthesis through the use of

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

6

case studies, small group discussions, and problem solving. Research has shown this technique to be
effective in increasing student learning 3,4,9,10

In order to be successful the experience should include a mechanisms for making the students
accountable for the pre-class assignments and evaluating their comprehension using online quizzes,
worksheets or some other assignments which contribute to the final course grade.3

CASE STUDIES

Case studies are effective learning activities to:

 promote interpretation and problem-solving skills.

 illustrate disease states or problems in the clinical laboratory such as instrument malfunctions,
quality assurance problems and management situations.

To use case studies effectively, the instructor should:

 use objectives that emphasize the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are relevant to clinical
laboratory practice and de-emphasize the importance of providing the correct diagnosis and/or
treatment for the patient.

 modify the material to emphasize the relevant points, and delete material that is beyond the
knowledge of the learner or is irrelevant to the objectives developed for the case study.

There are many sources of case studies, some of which are listed here:

 Journals such as the
American Journal of Hematology

Clinical Chemistry
Clinical Laboratory Science

Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Laboratory Medicine
New England Journal of Medicine

Transfusion

 Professional Associations

 Medical Grand Rounds or similar conferences

 Professional meetings

 Actual problems encountered in the clinical laboratory

SIMULATIONS AND ROLE- PLAYING

Simulations and role-playing represent learning activities that are specifically designed to promote
problem solving via learner involvement. Simulations create a structured, realistic situation in which

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

7

learners “play” themselves. In role-playing, the learner assumes the role of someone else, improvises,
and solves a problem. Simulations and role-playing:

 provide a risk-free environment for promoting problem-solving skills and improving
communication techniques

 are most useful for developing learning outcomes in the affective domain

 are most effective when they represent a situation that the learner will be likely to encounter

 can be time-consuming to develop and implement.

Simulations. The types of simulations most applicable to clinical laboratory science learners include:

1. Written. Given a written situation, the learner responds on paper. Feedback is given based on
the learner’s response.

2. Online. This is similar to written simulations; however, it is more versatile in its branching

capabilities.

3. Actual. A real-life situation is simulated. An example would be to create a point of care
laboratory in the student laboratory. A simulation of this sort would allow the learner to
evaluate instrumentation, perform quality control and instruct others in the proper
performance of the assays.

Role-Playing. In role-playing, only a few learners participate while others observe. Role-playing
episodes are short, usually less than 15 minutes, and deal with a specific problem. An example of a
role-playing situation would be confronting another clinical laboratory scientist concerning unethical
performance:

You observe a laboratory practitioner recording a result for a quality control test that you know
she did not perform. As her:

a) co-worker, what will you do?
b) supervisor, what will you do?

In order to create an effective simulation or role-playing situation the instructor should:

 Set a time limit.

 Base the simulation or role-playing on defined objectives.

 Create the background by providing descriptions of the characters and the situation.

 Use volunteers in role playing and involve the audience by asking their reaction to the events.

 Follow the simulation and role playing by a discussion of what occurred, what can be learned,
and how it could be applied to new situations.

 Focus on the role, not the person assuming the role, in critiquing the role playing.

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

8

COOPERATIVE LEARNING

In an effort to increase the learner’s responsibility for his or her own learning and to develop problem
solving and communication skills, some clinical laboratory educators are developing cooperative
learning (CL) activities to supplement traditional learning strategies.11 CL is a type of learning activity
involving a group of learners working together to solve a problem, such as a case study. Cooperative
learning is useful for:

 promoting affective and higher cognitive skills

 increasing communication skills

 developing problem solving skills

In CL, the learner assumes the role of both the instructor and the learner. Using knowledge previously
acquired in the curriculum, the learner supplements it with additional information learned
independently and then shares the new knowledge with the group, thereby teaching his or her peers.
Oral and/or written presentations by the group are often a part of CL

PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING

An extension of cooperative learning is problem-based learning (PBL). In PBL, learners working in small
groups, are presented with a problem to solve. The difference between CL and PBL has to do with
amount of prior knowledge the learner possesses. In PBL, the learners have not received any prior
lectures on the content of the problem, or any reading assignments. An example of the problem would
be a case study, clinical correlation, quality control problem or instrumentation troubleshooting.12 The
goal of the PBL activity is for the learner to determine what information he or she does not know and
what information needs to be learned independently in order to resolve the problem. The learner
identifies the appropriate resources such as textbooks, journals, other learners and faculty and acquires
the information. The instructor serves as a facilitator to the group process, not necessarily as a content
expert.

Proponents of PBL assert that while learners may cover up to 20% less in content compared to the
traditional lecture format, this loss in content is offset by the numerous benefits of PBL for the learner.
These benefits include 12:

 developing independent learning skills

 learning to communicate effectively with colleagues

 learning to function effectively in a group

 learning to solve problems, all of which are necessary skills for the future practitioner

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

9

ONLINE INSTRUCTION

Online instruction is a form of individualized instruction in which the learning is learner paced and the
information is usually presented in small, self-contained units. Learners are more active in this format of
learning compared to the lecture format, because often they are required to respond frequently and are
given immediate feedback Online instruction is most effective when the instructor closely monitors the
learner’s progress and aids the learner in the application of the knowledge gained. This topic is discussed
in greater detail in the chapter on continuing education.

STUDENT LABORATORY

Depending on the curriculum, a learner may spend a great deal of time in a student laboratory. The
purpose of the student laboratory is to provide a structured setting in which students learn and practice
laboratory procedures.

The advantages of the student laboratory are:

1. The student has the opportunity to integrate theory with psychomotor skills in a
non-threatening environment.

2. Basic skills can be repeated and evaluated until proficiency is achieved and the student is ready

to begin clinical laboratory rotations.

3. The student laboratory provides an opportunity for individualized instruction and feedback.

4. The student laboratory provides an opportunity for the instructor to recognize those students
who do not possess the appropriate skills necessary to continue in the clinical laboratory science
program.

Some limitations of student laboratories are:

1. They can be time-consuming for the faculty and costly in terms of reagents and equipment.

2. They have the inherent potential for keeping the student at the lower cognitive and
psychomotor levels. The labs, at worst, can turn into “cookbook” exercises.

To improve the student laboratory experience, the instructor should:

1. Pre-run the exercises prior to the laboratory period. At that time, the instructor can discover
what works, what does not work, and what needs to be modified.

2. Develop a laboratory manual. A laboratory manual should include objectives in all three

domains, laboratory procedures, study questions, worksheets, and evaluation criteria. It is

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

10

helpful to have the manual reviewed by someone outside of the subject area for clarity. The
evaluation criteria should be clearly stated so that the students are aware of what is expected of
them. The laboratory procedure should be given to the students well in advance of the
laboratory period so that they can come to each session prepared.

3. Use the pre-lab discussion period for reinforcing theory and demonstrating any new procedures.

A post-lab period may be needed after some lab sessions to analyze data and allow the students
to evaluate the assays they performed.

4. Correlate the exercises with the lectures in order to reinforce both learning activities.

5. Facilitate progression of the student’s skills. Early sessions emphasize basic skills and techniques,

and adequate time should be provided to allow the student to master these techniques. After
mastery has occurred, the emphasis of the laboratory should be on problem solving.

INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES TO FACILITATE LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Used in the proper context, instructional resources can augment learning activities. They do not exist
independently, however, and must be related to the goals and objectives of the course.
There are a variety of course management systems that electronically coordinate teaching materials,
such as Blackboard , Moodle and Sakai. These systems consolidate course documents, links to online
resources, discussion boards, email, grading centers and test administration into one website location.

Some of the more commonly encountered types of instructional resources in clinical laboratory science
include:

 Course syllabus

 Textbooks

 Handouts

 Online materials

Course Syllabus

If the instructor is preparing an entire course, either for use in a CLS program or for continuing
education purposes, the instructor should organize the learning activities in the form of a course
syllabus. Using the objectives as a guide, the instructor can develop a course syllabus which reflects a
logical sequence of topics progressing from basic information to complex theories and application. The
instructor then allots each topic a specified amount of time. Often it is difficult for the new instructor to
know how much time to devote to certain topics. In this situation, it is useful to acquire course syllabi
from instructors in other clinical laboratory science programs to provide a rough estimate of time. An
instructor may find that once the course begins, the schedule is unrealistic and requires revision. The

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

11

course materials can be distributed in paper form and/or centrally located on a course management
system.

A course syllabus can include the following information for the learner:

1. Course name, number, scheduled meeting time, and location
2. Instructor’s name, office hours, and office location, email address and telephone number
3. Course goals
4. Course schedule of topics and applicable reading assignments
5. Assigned textbook and any recommended text(s)
6. Course assignments and test schedule(s)
7. Policy for late assignments and missed examinations
8. Policy for the use of laptops and smart phones in the classroom
9. Objectives. Some instructors prepare course objectives as well as individual topic objectives for

distribution at the beginning of the course. Others prefer to distribute the specific topic objec-
tives at the time of presentation

10. Honor Code policy for the institution, where applicable

Textbooks

Many instructors select a textbook or reference materials for their course during the early planning
stages. Print or electronic textbooks can be a source of remedial information for learners or can provide
additional information beyond what is covered in the classroom. The textbook should be appropriate
for the learner’s level of comprehension. Often the textbook becomes a resource for future learning
either in the student’s clinical rotation or on the job. In many disciplines of clinical laboratory science
there are standard textbooks that have a wide circulation; however, instructors should not feel
compelled to adopt such a book unless it is consistent with their goals and objectives for the course.

Many instructors find there is no one book which fits their needs and choose to provide course packets
or assigned readings. Course packets are collections of articles selected from various textbooks,
journals, or the instructor’s own material that are reproduced and distributed to the learners. In using a
course packet, the instructor needs to carefully examine the copyright laws. An alternative to course
packets is assigned reading from texts and journals placed on reserve in the library or available with an
electronic reserve links. Regardless of what resources are selected, the instructor should take the time
during the first class period to go over the materials with the learners, explaining their purpose and how
they are to be used. Feedback from the learners on the text or other reading assignments should be
solicited and considered in future selection.

Handouts

Handouts, prepared by the instructor, and distributed prior to the learning activity, can facilitate the
transmission of information. The handout can contain an outline of the topics for the lecture
presentation, provide space for note-taking and include diagrams or tables that may be presented
during the lecture. Providing the learner with diagrams or tables increases efficiency during the class
time because the instructor does not have to allot time for the learners to copy the information into

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

12

their notes. Another advantage to providing diagrams or tables on the handout is that the instructor
does not have to be as concerned with visibility if the image is on a computer slide presentation.
Instructors can provide short statements concerning content in the handout, but they should avoid
reprinting their lecture word for word, because learners are less likely to process the information during
the class if they do not have to take any notes.

The use of laptops by students in the classroom to take notes is problematic. Students tend to prefer
using laptops versus hand writing for note taking; however their presence in the classroom can be
distracting and lead to multitasking. A study revealed that students using laptops for notetaking had
poorer outcomes on conceptual questions compared to students who took notes by hand . 13

The researchers suggested that laptop notetaking did not allow for processing of information because
the notes tended to be verbatim transcripts of the lecture versus a synthetic process of information
found in hand written lecture notes. 13

Online Materials

Computerized multimedia can facilitate the retention of material by creating a visual image, clarifying
abstract ideas, creating realism, and providing variety. Presentation software such as Microsoft
PowerPoint are easy to use and incorporate downloaded graphics, animation, sound and videoclips.
Other presentation software such as cloud based Prezi allow for extensive animation and creativity
options. 14

For an effective presentation, the instructor should:

 Select a slide design that is simple and does not distract the learner from the information
provided.

 Select a large enough font for clear visibility.

 Avoid crowding the slide with too much information. Text should be restricted to key concepts
presented in bullet format, not complete sentences or paragraphs. Graphs should be designed
to summarize data, or present trends versus individual points.

 Adhere to copyright laws.

 Avoid reading the material on the slides to the learners. Elaborate on the textual material, and
describe the information presented in any images, graphs or tables.

 Project the individual slides for a sufficient amount of time for the learners to process the
information.

SUMMARY

After developing goals and objectives, the learning activities should be planned and organized to
facilitate the learner’s mastery of the objectives. Objectives in different domains may be best addressed
using a particular learning activity. For example, psychomotor skills are best taught in a student
laboratory, and affective skills can be developed using simulations and videoclips. Using a variety of
learning activities helps to address different domains and levels of objectives and increase the learner’s

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)
Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

13

interest and involvement in the process. Instructional resources can enhance learning activities when
properly used. In selecting the resources, the following questions should be considered.15

 Is the instructional aid appropriate for the goals and objectives of the course?

 What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the particular instructional aid?

 Does the instructional aid communicate the necessary concepts effectively?

 Is the instructional aid accurate and current?

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McGraw-Hill, 1980, p. 1.
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3. Brame, C: Flipping the classroom. http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom/

Accessed May 28, 2014.
4. Hoag KA:Pros and Cons on Flipping an Undergraduate Clinical Immunology Course. Clin Lab Sci 27(2): 85,

2014.
5. Caldwell J: Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best Practice Tips. CBE Life Sci Educ 6

(1): 9-20, 2007.
6. Foley RP, Smilansky J: Teaching Techniques: A Handbook for Health Professionals. New York,

McGraw-Hill, 1980, p. 5.
7. Bonwell CC and Eison JA: Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ASHE- ERIC Higher

Education Report No.1 Washington, DC. The George Washington University, School of Education and
Human Development. 1991. pp 10-11.

8. Smyth E: Enhancing Learning through Video and Lecture Capture.
http://www.teachingprofessor.com/wp-content/uploads/Smyth-I-Capture-the-Classroom.pdf

Accessed May 28, 2014.
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physics class. Science 332: 862-864, 2011.
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Learning Activities

Susan J. Beck, Ph.D., MLS(ASCP)CM and Vicky A. LeGrys, D.A., MT(ASCP)

Division of Clinical Laboratory Science, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Copyright 2014: The American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science

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Learning Activities

  • Selected based on goals and objectives
  • Includes
  • Lecture
  • Flipped Classroom
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations and Role Playing
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Problem Based Learning
  • Online Instruction
  • Student Laboratory

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Lecture Method Advantages

  • Can transmit a lot of information
  • Instructor can demonstrate enthusiasm
  • Can be easily updated
  • Does not require learner participation

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Lecture Method Disadvantage

Learner is passive

80% lost within 2 months

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Lecture Method Suggestions

Increase learner involvement

Ask questions

Use audience response systems

Solicit feedback

Assign discussion topics

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Lecture Method

  • Organization
  • Introduction
  • Body
  • Conclusion

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Lecture Method

  • Delivery
  • demonstrate enthusiasm by movement, varying voice pitch
  • establish appropriate pace
  • minimize nervous habits in speech and gestures
  • maintain eye contact with audience

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The Flipped Classroom

  • New material presented prior to class
  • Online lectures
  • Videos
  • Reading assignments
  • Class time used for higher cognitive skill development
  • Case studies
  • Small group discussions

Case Study

  • Uses
  • higher cognitive domain

promotes problem solving skills

  • as an introduction or summary for a lecture
  • Sources
  • journals
  • actual problems in the lab
  • professional associations

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Simulations and Role Playing

  • Simulations
  • scenario is based on current situation
  • Role playing
  • assume a role

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Simulations and Role Playing

  • Uses
  • affective and higher cognitive domains

promotes problem solving

  • instructor provide scenarios
  • provide class time for discussion

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Example of a Role Playing Scenario

You observe a CLS recording results for quality control that you know she did not perform. As her:

  • co-worker, what will you do?
  • supervisor, what will you do?

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Cooperative Learning (CL)

  • Uses/Advantages
  • affective and higher cognitive domains
  • increase communication skills
  • focuses on group skills
  • learner takes responsibility for learning
  • learner has acquired prior knowledge
  • the group works together

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Problem Based Learning (PBL)

  • Similar to CL, but learner lacks prior knowledge
  • Emphasizes information gathering
  • Develops skills for CLS practice
  • e.g. instrumentation troubleshooting

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Online Instruction

  • Uses
  • source of individual instruction
  • best when visual images are incorporated
  • can cover all levels of cognitive and affective domain
  • actively engages the learner in interactive sequences

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Student Laboratory

  • Uses

integration of psychomotor and cognitive domains

acquire and practice skills in non-threatening environment

  • Suggestions

develop a manual

progress in course to higher skills

pre run labs

integrate and emphasize application and problem solving skills

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Instructional Resources

  • Course management systems
  • Course syllabus
  • Textbooks
  • Handouts
  • Online materials

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Course Syllabus

  • Includes
  • Course name, number, meeting time and location
  • Instructor’s name, office hours, contact information
  • Course goals and objectives
  • Schedule of topics
  • Reading assignments
  • Exam schedule
  • Honor code policy

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Textbooks

  • Traditional textbook vs e textbooks
  • Course packets
  • Can include information from variety of sources

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Handouts

  • Facilitates organization and note taking
  • Cut/paste complex drawings
  • Credit the source
  • Don’t create verbatim transcripts

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Presentation Software Guidelines

  • Choose appropriate design template for audience
  • Limit text
  • Bullet information
  • Integrate graphics
  • Cite sources
  • Verbally elaborate on material

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Evaluate the slide

Clinical Enzyme Assays

  • Measure  in product (P) or in substrate (S)

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Evaluate the slide

  • nvCJD :
  • Caused by ingestion of meat from cows with BSE “mad-cow disease” (around 1992) in the UK. There are about 56 patients in UK with the disease. No one in the US has the disease in 2001.
  • The median age of onset is 26 and the median duration of the illness is 14 months
  • nvCJD is caused by a prion. A prion is an infectious polypeptide, it is not a virus, bacteria, fungi or parasite. It contains no nucleic acid or membrane and is capable of autopropagation

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Conclusion for Instructional Aids

  • Is the instructional aid appropriate for the goals and objectives of the course?
  • What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of the particular instructional aid?
  • Does the instructional aid communicate the necessary concepts effectively?
  • Is the instructional aid accurate and current?

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