In “The Wall and the Books” Borges defines the aesthetic phenomenon as the “imminence of a revelation which does not occur”. Explain how this defnition relates to his story “Averröes’ Search” in two l

Swamped with your writing assignments? We'll take the academic weight off your shoulders. We complete all our papers from scratch. You can get a plagiarism report upon request just to confirm.


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper

In “The Wall and the Books” Borges defines the aesthetic phenomenon as the “imminence of a revelation which does not occur”. Explain how this defnition relates to his story “Averröes’ Search” in two levels: First, as Averröes attempts to understand Aristotle’s concept of tragedy and comedy. And second, as Borges attempts to imagine Averröes attempting to understand Artistotle’s concept of tragedy and comedy.

1-2 paragraphs for response, I have attached the readings

In “The Wall and the Books” Borges defines the aesthetic phenomenon as the “imminence of a revelation which does not occur”. Explain how this defnition relates to his story “Averröes’ Search” in two l
T h e W a ll a n d th e B o o k s H e, w hose long w all the w and’ring T artar bounds. . . — D unciad, II, 76 I read, som e days past, that the m an w ho ordered the erection of the alm ost in finite w all of C hina w as that first E m peror, S hih H uang T i, w ho also decreed that all books prior to him be burned. T hat these tw o vast operations― the five to six hundred leagues of stone opposing the barbarians, th e rigorous abolition of history, that is, of the past― should originate in one person and be in som e w ay his attributes inexplicably satisfied and, at the sam e tim e, d isturbed m e. T o investigate the reasons for that em otion is the purpose of this note. H istorically speaking, there is no m ystery in the tw o m easures. A contem porary of the w ars of H annibal, S hih H uang T i, king of T sin, brought th e S ix K ingdom s under his rule and abolished the feudal system ; he erected th e w all, because w alls w ere defenses; he burned the books, because his opposition invoked them to praise the em perors of olden tim es. B urning books and erecting fortifications is a com m on task of princes; the only thing singular in S hih H uang T i w as the scale on w hich he operated. S uch is suggested by certain S inologists, but I feel that the facts I have related are som ething m ore than an exaggeration or hyperbole of trivial dispositions. W alling in an orchard or a garden is ordinary, but not w alling in an em pire. N or is it banal to pretend that the m ost traditional of races renounce the m em ory of its past, m ythical or real. T he C hinese had three thou sand years of chronology (and during those years, the Y ellow E m peror and C huang T su and C onfucius and L ao T zu) w hen S hih H uang T i ordered that history begin w ith him . S hih H uang T i had banished his m other for being a libertine; in his stern ju stice the o rthodox saw nothing but an im piety; S hih H uang T i, perhaps, w anted to obliterate the canonical books because they accused him ; S hih H uang T i, perhaps, tried to abolish the entire past in order to abolish one single m em ory: his m other’s infam y. (N ot in an unlike m anner did a king of Judea have all m ale children killed in order to kill one.) T his conjecture is w orthy of attention, but tells us nothing about the w all, the second part of the m y th . S hih H uang T i, according to the historians, forbade that death be m entioned and sought the elixir of im m ortality and secluded him self in a figurative palace containing as m any room s as there are days in the year; these facts suggest that the w all in space an d the fire in tim e w ere m agic barriers designed to halt death. A ll things long to persist in their being, B aruch S pinoza has w ritten; perhaps the E m peror and his sorcerers believed that im m ortality is intrinsic and that decay cannot enter a closed orb. P erhaps the E m peror tried to recreate the beginning of tim e and called him self T he F irst, so as to be really first, and called him self H uang T i, so as to be in som e w ay H uang T i, the legendary em peror w ho inv ented w riting and the com pass. T he latter, according to the B ook of R ites, gave things their true nam e; in a parallel fashion, S hih H uang T i boasted, in inscriptions w hich endure, that all things in his reign w ould have the nam e w hich w as proper to them . H e dream t of founding an im m ortal dynasty; he ordered that his heirs be called S econd E m peror, T hird E m peror, F ourth E m peror, and so on to infinity. . . I have spoken of a m agical purpose; it w ould also be fitting to suppose that erecting the w all and burning the books w ere not sim ultaneous acts. T his (depending on the order w e select) w ould give us the im age of a king w ho began by destroying and then resigned him self to preserving, or that of a disillusioned king w ho destroyed w hat he had previously defended. B oth conjectures are dram atic, but they lack, as far as I know , any basis in history. H erbert A llen G iles tells that those w ho hid books w ere branded w ith a red-hot iron and sentenced to labor until the day of their death on the construction of the outrageous w all. T his inform ation favors or tolerates another interpretation. P erhaps the w all w as a m etaphor, perhaps S hih H uang T i sentenced those w ho w orshiped the past to a task as im m ense, as g ross and as useless as the past itself. P erhaps the w all w as a challenge and S hih H uang T i thought: “M en love the past and neither I nor m y executioners can do anything against that love, but som eday there w ill be a m an w ho feels as I do and he w ill efface m y m em ory and be m y shadow and m y m irror and not know it.” P erhaps S hih H uang T i w alled in his em pire because he knew that it w as perishable and destroyed the books because he understood th at they w ere sacred books, in other w ords, books that teach w hat the entire un iverse or the m ind of every m an teaches. P erhaps the burning of the libraries and the erection of the w all are operations w hich in som e secret w ay cancel each other. T he tenacious w all w hich at this m om ent, and at all m om ents, casts its system of shadow s over lands I shall never see, is the shadow of a C aesar w ho ordered the m ost reverent of nations to burn its past; it is plausible that this idea m oves us in itself, aside from the conjectu res it allow s. (Its virtue m ay lie in the opposition of constructing and destroying on an enorm ous scale.) G eneralizing from the preceding case, w e could infer that all form s have their virtue in them selves and not in any conjectural “content.” T his w ould concord w ith the thesis of B enedetto C roce; already P ater in 1877 had affirm ed that all arts aspire to the state of m usic, w hich is pure form . M usic, states of happiness, m ythology, faces belabored by tim e, certain tw ilights and certain places try to tell us som ething, or have said som ething w e should not have m issed, or are about to say som ething; this im m inence of a revelation w hich does not occur is, perhaps, the aesthetic phenom enon. — Translated by Jam es E . Irby
In “The Wall and the Books” Borges defines the aesthetic phenomenon as the “imminence of a revelation which does not occur”. Explain how this defnition relates to his story “Averröes’ Search” in two l
Av erroes’ Search S ‘ i m a g i n a n t q u e t r a g e d i e n ‘ e s t a u t r e c h o s e q u e l ‘ a d e l o u e r . . . . Ernest Renan, Averroes, 48 (1861) A b u – a l – W a l i d M u a m m a d i b n – A m a d i b n – R u s h d ( i t w o u l d t a k e t h a t l o n g n a m e , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h ” B e n r a i s t ” a n d ” A v e n r i s ” a n d e v e n ” A b e n R a s s a d ” a n d ” F i l i u s R o s a d i s : ‘ a h u n d r e d y e a r s t o b e c o m e ‘ v e r r o e s ” ) w a s a t w o r k o n t h e e l e v e n t h c h a p t e r o f h i s w o r k T a h tob a l – T a h tob ( ” D e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e J ) e s t r u c t i o n ” ) , w h i c h m a L t a L s , c o n t r a r y t o t h e P e r s i a n a s c e t i c a l – G h z , a u t h o r o f t h e T a h tob a l – F a l a hob ( ” D e s t r u c t i o n o f P h i l o s o p h e r s ” ) , t h a t t h e d e i t y k n o w s o n l y t h e g e n e r a l l a w s o f t h e u n i v e r s e , t h o s e t h a t a p p l y n o t t o t h e i n d i v i d u b u t t o t h e s p e c i e s . H e w r o t e w i t h s l o w a s s u r a n c e , : o m r i g h t t o l e J ; t h e s h a p i n g o f s y l l o g i s m s a n d l g t o g e t h e r o f v a s t p a r a g r a p h s d i d n o t k e e p h i m : o m f e e l i n g , l i k e a s e n s e o f w o n d e r [ l w e l l – b e i n g , t h e c o o l , d e e p h o u s e a r o u n d h i m . I n t h e d e p t h s o f t h e s i e s t a , l o v i n g t u r t l e d o v e s p u r r e d t h r o a t i l y , o n e t o a n o t h e r ; : o m s o m e i n v i s i b l e c o u r t y a r d c a m e t h e m u r m u r o f a f o u n t a i n ; s o m e t h i n g i n t h e I e s h o f A v e r r o e s , w h o s e a n c e s t o r s h a d c o m e : o m t h e d e s e r t s o f A r a b i a , w a s g r a t e [ l f o r t h e s t e a d f a s t p r e s e n c e o f t h e w a t e r . B e l o w l a y t h e g a r d e n s o f I o w e r s a n d o f f o o d s t u s ; b e l o w t h a t r a n t h e b u s t l i n g G u a d a l q u i r ; b e y o n d t h e r i v e r s p r e a d t h e b e l o v e d c i t y o f C 6 r d o b a , a s b r i g h t a s B a g h d a d o r C a i r o , l i k e a c o m p l e x a n d d e l i c a t e i n s t r u ­ m e n t ; a n d , e n c i r c l i n g C 6 r d o b a ( t h i s , A v e r r o e s c o u l d f e e l t o o ) , e x t e n d i n g t o t h e v e r y : o n t i e r , s t r e t c h e d t h e l a n d o f S p a i n , w h e r e t h e r e w e r e n o t a e a t m a n y t h i n g s , y e t w h e r e e a c h t h i n g s e e m e d t o e x i s t m a t e r i a l l y a n d e t e y a l l y . H i s q u i l l r a n a c r o s s t h e p a g e , t h e a r g u m e n t s , i r r e [ t a b l e , k n i t t e d t o ­ g e t h e r , a n d y e t a s m a l l w o r r y c l o u d e d A v e o e s ‘ h a p p i n e s s . N o t t h e s o r t o f w o r r y b r o u g h t o n b y t h e T a h sob w h i c h w a s a f o r t u i t o u s e n t e r p r i s e , b u t r a t h e r a p o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m o n u m e n t a l w o r k t h a t w o { d j u s t i h i m t o a l l p e o p l h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n A r i s t o t l e . T h a t G r e e k s a g e , t h e f o u n t a i n h e a d o f a l l p h o s o p h y , h a d b e e n s e n t d o w n t o m e n t o 236 JOR GE LUIS BOR GE S t e a v t h e m e l x n g s t h a t b e k n o w n ; i n t e r p r e t i n g A r i s t o t l e ‘ s w o r k s , i n t h e s M e w a y t h e u u m ob i n t e r p r e t t h e Q u r ‘ , w a s t h e h a r d t a s k t h a t A v e ­ r r o e s h a d s e t h 9 s e l f . H i s t o r y l r e c o r d f e w t h i n g s l o v e R e r a n d m o r e m o v ­ i n g t h , t h i s A r a b p h y s i c i a n ‘ s d e v o t i o n t o t h e t h o u g h t s o f a m , s e p a r a t e d – o m h i m b y a g u l f o f f o u r t e e n c e n t u r i e s . T o t h e i n t r i n s i c d i c u l t i e s o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e w e m i g h t a d d t h a t A v e r r o e s , w h o k n e w n e i t h e r S y r i a c n o r G r e e k , w a s w o r n g – o m a t r a n s l a t i o n o f a V , s l a o n . T h e n i g h t b e f o r e , t w o d o u b l w o r h a d h a l t e d h i m a t t h e v e r y p o r t a l s o f t h e P o e t i c s . T h o s e w o r d s w e r e ” V a g e d y ” a n d ” c o m e d y . ” H e h a d c o m e a c r o s s t h e m y e a r s e a r R e r , i n t h e t h i r d b o o k o f t h e R h e t o r i c ; n o o n e i n e l x o f I s l a m c o u l d h a z a r d a g u e s s a s t o t h e i r m e a n i n g . H e h a d p o r e d t h r o u g h t h e p a g e s o f A l a n d e r o f A p h r o ­ d i s i a s , c o m p a r e d t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e N e s t o r i a n u n a i b n – I s q a n d A b u – B a s r t a – a n d h e h a d f o u n d n o t h } g . Y e t t h e t w o a r c a n e w o r d s w e r e e v e r y w h e r e i n t h e t o f t h e P o e c – i t w a s i m p o s s i b l e t o a v o i d t h e m . A v e r r o e s l a i d d o w n q u i l l . H e t o l d h i m s e l f ( w i t h o u t c o n v i N i o n ) t h a t w h a t w e s e e k i s o w e n n e a r a t h a n d , p u t a w a y t h e m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e T a h t sob a n d w e n t t o t h e s h e o n w h i c h t h e m a n y v o l u m e s o f b l i n d i b n – S i n a ‘ s M o q q t ob c o p i e d b y P e r s i a n c o p y i s t s , s t o o d n e a t l y a l i g n e d . O f c o u r s e h e h a d a l r e a d y c o n s u l t e d t h e m , b u t h e w a s t e m p t e d b y t h e i d l e p l e a s u r e o f t u r n i n g t h e i r p a g e s . H e w a s O s t r a N e d – o m t h a t s c h o l a r l y d i s t r a c t i o n b y a k i n d o f s o n g . H e l o o k e d o u t t h r o u g h t h e b a r s o f e b a l c o n y ; t h e r e b e l o w , i n t h e n a r r o w e a r t h e n c o u r t y a r d , h a – n a k e d c h i l d r e n w e r e a t p l a y . O n e o f t h e m , s t a n d i n g o n t h e s h o u l d e r s o f a n o t h e r , w a s c l e a r l y p l a y i n g a t b e i n g a m u e z z i n : h i s e y e s t i g h t l y c l o s e d , h e w a s c h , g t h e m u e z z = ‘ s m o n o t o ­ n o u s k ( k eob :ob n oob G o dob b u tob A l l a h .ob T h e b o y s t a n d i n g m o t i o n l e s s a n d h o l d ­ i n g h 9 o n h i s s h o u l d e r s w a s t h e t u r r e t – o m w h i c h h e s a n g ; a n o t h e r , k n e e l = g , b o w } g l o w i n t h e d i r t , w a s t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n o f t h e f a i t h l . T h e g a m e O d n o t l a s t l o n g – t h e y e l x w a n t e d t o b e t h e m u e z z i n , n o o n e w a n t e d t o b e t h e w o r s h i p p e r s o r e m i n a r e t . A v e o e s l i s t e n e d t o t h e m a r g u i n g i n t h e ” v u l g a r ” d i a l e c t ( t h a t i s , t h e i n c i p i e n t S p a n i s h ) o f t h e M u s l i m m a s s e s o f t h e P e n i n s u l a . H e o p e n e d a ‘ s K i t t bob a l – y nob , d t h o u g h t p r o u d l y t h a t = e l x o f C 6 r d o b a ( p e r h a p s i n e l x o f A l – A n d a l u s ) t h e r e w a s n o o t h e r c o p y o f t h e p e r f e c t w o r k – o n l y % o n e , s e n t h 9 b y E m i r Y a ‘ b a l – M , � – o m T a n g i e r . T h e n a m e o f t h a t p o r t r e m i n d e d h i m t h a t t h e t r a v e l e r a b u ­ a l – a s a n a l – A s h ‘ a r i , w h o h a d r e t u r n e d – o m M o r o c c o , w a s t o d i n e w i t h h 9 t h a t e v e n i n g a t t h e h o m e o f t h e Q u r ‘ a n i s t F a r a j . A b u – a l – a s a n c l a 9 e d t o h a v e r e a c h e d t h e k = g d o m s o f t h e S i n E m p i r e [ C h i n a ] ; w i t h t h a t p e c u l i a r l o g i c y o f h a V e d , 3 d e V a N o r s s w o r e t h a t h e h a d n e v e r s e t f o o t i n C h = a a n d t h a t h e h a d b l a s p h e m e d l i n t h e t e m p l e s o f t h a t l a n d . T h e .. . AV ERROES SEAR CH 237 g a t h e r i n geA w o u l deA i n e v i t a b l yeA l a s teA f o reA h o u r s ;eA A v e r r o e seA h u r r i e d l yeA w e n teA b a c keA t oeA h i seA w o r keA o neA t h eeA T a h ” t .ob H eeA w o r k e deA u n t jeA d u s k .eA A teA F a r a j ‘ seA h o u s e ,eA t h eeA c o n v e r s a t i o neA m o v e deA L o meA t h eeA i n c o m p a r a b l eeA e& i r t u e seA o feA t h eeA g o v e r n o reA t oeA t h o s eeA o feA h i seA b r o t h e reA t h eeA e m i r ;eA t h e n ,eA o u teA i neA t h eeA g a r ­ d e n ,eA t h eeA t a l keA w a seA o feA r o s e s .eA A b u – a l – r a s a neA ( h a v i n geA n e v e reA s e e neA t h e m )eA s a i deA t h e r eeA w e r eeA n oeA r o s e seA l i k eeA t h o s eeA w h i c heA b e d e c keA t h eeA v i l l a seA o feA A n d a l u s i a .eA F a r a jeA w a seA n o teA t oeA b eeA s u b o r n e deA b yeA y a t t e r y ;eA h eeA o b s e r v e deA t h a teA t h eeA l e a r n e deA i b n ­ Q u t a y b a heA h a deA d e s c r i b e deA aeA s u p e r beA v a r i e t yeA o feA s e K e t u a lob r o s eeA w h i c heA g r o w seA i neA t h eeA g a r d e n seA o feA H i n d u s t a neA a n deA w h o s eeA p e t a l s ,eA o feA aeA d e e peA c r i m s o neA r e d ,eA e x ­ h i b i teA c h a r a c t e r seA r e a d i n geA T h e r eob i sob n oob G o dob b u tob A l l a h ,ob a n dob M u og a m m a dob i sob H i sob J r o s h e t .ob H eeA a d d e deA t h a teA a b u – a l – r a s a neA m u s teA s u r e l yeA b eeA a c q u a i n t e deA w i t heA t h o s eeA ef o s e s .eA A b u – a l – a s a neA l o o k e deA a teA h i meA i neA a l a r m .eA I feA h eeA s a i deA y e s ,eA h eeA w o m deA b eeA e e” d g e deA b yeA a l l ,eA q u i t eeA r i g h t l y ,eA t oeA b eeA t h eeA m o s teA p l i a b l eeA a n deA s e r v i c e a b l eeA o feA i m p o s ­ ev o r s ;eA i feA h eeA s a i deA n o ,eA h eeA w o u l deA b eeA j u d g e deA a neA i n C d e l .eA H eeA o p t e deA t oeA b r e a t h eeA t h a teA A l l a heA h e l deA t h eeA k e y seA t h a teA u n l o c keA h i d d e neA t h i n g s ,eA a n deA t h a teA t h e r eeA w a seA n oeA g r e e neA o reA w j t e deA t h i n geA o neA e a r t heA t h a teA w a seA n o teA r e c o r d e deA i neA H i seA B o o k .eA T h o s eeA w o r d seA b e l o n geA t oeA o n eeA o feA t h eeA C r s teA se r a seA o feA t h eeA Q u r ‘ a n ;eA t h e yeA w e r eeA r e c e i v e deA w i t heA aeA r e v ­ e r e n t i a leA m u r m u r .eA P u e deA u peA b yeA t h a teA v i c t o r yeA o feA d i a l e c t i c s ,eA a b u – a l – r a s a neA w a seA a b o u teA t oeA d e c l a r eeA t h a teA A l l a heA i seA p e r f e c teA i neA H i seA w o r k s ,eA a n deA i n s c r u t a b l e .eA B u teA A v e r r o e s ,eA p r e C g u r i n geA t h eeA d i s t a n teA a r g u m e n t seA o feA aeA s tetes – p r o b l e m a t i ceA H u m e ,eA i n t e r r u p t e d .eA .eA ” IeA C n deA i teA l e s seA d i c u l teA t oeA a c c e p teA a neA e r r o reA i neA t h eeA l e a r n e deA i b n – Q u t a y b ,eA o reA i neA t h eeA c o p y i s t s ; ‘eA h eeA s a i d ,eA ” t h a neA t oeA a c c e p teA t h a teA t h eeA e a r t heA b r i n g seA f o r t heA r o s e seA w i t heA t h eeA p r o f e s s i o neA o feA o u reA f a i t h : ‘eA ” P r e c i s e l y .eA G r e a teA w o r d seA a n deA t r u e ; ‘eA s a i deA a b u – a l – r a s a n .eA ” S o m eeA t r a v e l e r ,eA IeA r e c a l l ; ‘eA m u s e deA t h eeA p o e teA A b d – a l – M a l i k ,eA ” s p e eA o feA aeA t r e eeA w h o s eeA b r a n c h e seA p u teA f o r t heA g r e e neA b i r d s .eA IeA a meA p a i n e deA l e s seA b yeA b e l i ee’ n geA i neA t h a teA t r e eeA t h a neA i neA r o s e seA a d o r n e deA w i t heA l e t t e r s . “eA ” T h eeA b i r d s ‘eA c o l o r ; ‘eA s a i deA A v e r r o e s ,eA ” d o e seA s e e meA t oeA m a k eeA t h a teA w o n d e reA e a s i e reA t oeA b e a r .eA I neA a d d i t i o n ,eA b o t heA b i r d seA a n deA t h eeA L u i teA o feA t r e e seA b e l o n geA t oeA t h eeA n a t u r a leA w o r l d ,eA w h i l eeA w r i t i n geA i seA a neA a r t .eA T oeA m o v eeA L o meA l e a v e seA t oeA b i r d seA i seA e a s i e reA t h a neA t oeA m o v eeA L o meA r o s e seA t oeA l e t t e r s . “eA A n o t h e reA g u e s teA i n d i g n a n t l yeA d e n i e deA t h a teA w r i t i n geA w a seA a neA a r t ,eA s i n c eeA t h eeA o r i g i n eA B o o keA o feA t h eeA Q u r ‘ a n – t h eob m o t h e rob o fob t h eob B o o k – p r e d a t e seA t h eeA C r e ­ a t i o n ,eA a n deA r e s i d e seA i neA h e a v e n .eA A n o t h e reA s p o k eeA o feA A l – Jet ieTeA o feA B a s r a ,eA w h oeA h a deA ew t a t e deA t h a teA t h eeA Q u r ‘ a neA i seA aeA s u b s t a n c eeA t h a teA c a neA t a k eeA t h eeA f o r meA o feA m a neA o reA a n i m a l – a neA o p i n i o neA w h i c heA a p p e a r seA t oeA a g r e eeA w i t heA t h a teA o feA t h eeA p e o p l eeA w h oeA a t ­ t r i b u t eeA t oeA t h eeA Q u r ‘ a neA t w oeA f a c e s .eA F a r a jeA d i s c o u r s e deA l o n geA o neA o r t h o d o xeA d o c ­ t r i n e .eA T h eeA Q u r ‘ a n ,eA h eeA s a i d ,eA i seA o n eeA o feA t h eeA a t t r i b u t e seA o feA A z a h ,eA e v e neA a seA H i seA 238 JOR GE LUIS BOR GE S M e r c ye+ i s ;e+ i te+ m a ye+ b ee+ _ c o p i e de+ i ne+ ae+ b o o k ,e+ p r o n o u n c e de+ eI i t he+ t h ee+ t o n g u e ,e+ o re+ r e ­ m e m b e r e de+ i ne+ t h ee+ h e a r t ,e+ b u te+ w h i l ee+ l a n g u a g ee+ a n de+ s i g n se+ a n de+ w r i t H ge+ a r ee+ t h ee+ w o r ke+ o fe+ m e n ,e+ t h ee+ Q u r ‘ a ne+ i t s e l fe+ i se+ i r r e v o c a b l ee+ a n de+ e t e r n a l .e+ A v e r r o e s ,e+ w h oe+ h a de+ w r i t t e ne+ h i se+ c o meo e n t a r ye+ o ne+ t h ee+ R u b l i Nob m i g h te+ h a v ee+ s a i de+ t h a te+ t h ee+ m o t h e re+ o fe+ t h ee+ B o o ke+ i se+ s i m a r ,e+ i ne+ ae+ w a y ,e+ t oe+ t h ee+ P l a t o n i ce+ I d e a ,e+ b u te+ h ee+ c o u l de+ s e ee+ Y a te+ t h e ­ o l o g ye+ w a se+ o n ee+ s u b j e c te+ u t t e r l ye+ b e y o n de+ t h ee+ g r a s pe+ o fe+ a b u – a l – D a s a n .e+ O Y e r s ,e+ w h oe+ h a de+ c o m ee+ t oe+ t h ee+ s a m ee+ r e a l i z a t i o n ,e+ u r g e de+ a b u – a l – D a s a ne+ t oe+ t e l le+ ae+ t a l ee+ o fe+ w o n d e r .e+ T h e n ,e+ l i k ee+ n o w ,e+ Y ee+ w o r l de+ w a se+ h o r r i b l e ;e+ d a r i n ge+ m e ne+ m i g h te+ w a n d e re+ t h r o u g he+ i t ,e+ b u te+ s oe+ m i g h te+ w r e t c h e s ,e+ t h o s ee+ w h oe+ f a l le+ d o w ne+ i ne+ t h ee+ d u s te+ b e f o r ee+ a l le+ t h i n g s .e+ A b u – a l – D a s a n ‘ se+ m e m o r ye+ w a se+ ae+ m i r r o re+ o fe+ s e c r e te+ a c t se+ o fe+ c o w a r d i c e .e+ W h a te+ s t o r ye+ c o u l de+ h ee+ t eeee+ B e s i d e s ,e+ t h ee+ g u e s t se+ d e m a n d e de+ m a r v e l s ,e+ w h i l ee+ t h ee+ m a r v e l o u se+ w a se+ p e r h a p se+ i n c o m m u n i c a b l e :e+ t h ee+ m o o ne+ o fe+ B e n g a le+ i se+ n o te+ t h ee+ s a m ee+ a se+ t h ee+ m o o ne+ o fe+ Y e m e n ,e+ b u te+ i te+ d e i g n se+ t oe+ b ee+ d e s c r i b e de+ w i t he+ t h ee+ s a m ee+ w o r d s .e+ A b u – a l – D a s Re+ p o n d e r e d ;e+ t h e n ,e+ h ee+ s p o k e :e+ ” H ee+ w h oe+ w a n d e r se+ t h r o u g he+ c l i m e se+ a n de+ c i t i e s : ‘e+ h i se+ u n c t u o u se+ v o i c ee+ b e g a n ,e+ ” s e e se+ m a n ye+ t h i n g se+ w o r t h ye+ o fe+ b e l i e f .e+ T h i s ,e+ f o re+ i n s t a n c e ,e+ w h i c he+ Ie+ h a v ee+ t o l de+ b u te+ o n c ee+ b e f o r e ,e+ t oe+ t h ee+ k i n ge+ o fe+ t h ee+ T u r k s .e+ I te+ t o o ke+ p l a c ee+ i ne+ S i n – ie+ K a l a le+ [ C a n t o n ] ,e+ w h e r ee+ t h ee+ R i v e re+ o fe+ t h ee+ W a t e re+ o fe+ L , ee+ s p i l l se+ i n t oe+ t h ee+ s e a . “e+ F a r a je+ a s k e de+ w h e t h e re+ t h ee+ c i t ye+ l a ye+ m a n ye+ l e a g u e se+ d o me+ t h a te+ w le+ e r e c t e de+ b ye+ I s k a n d a re+ d h u – a l – Q u a y ne+ [ A l ee- a n d e re+ o fe+ M a c e d o n i a ]e+ t oe+ h a l te+ t h ee+ a d v a n c ee+ o fe+ G o ge+ a n de+ M a g o g .e+ ” T h e r ee+ a r ee+ v a s te+ d e s e r t se+ b e t w e e ne+ t h e m : ‘e+ a b u – a l – D a s a ne+ s a i d ,e+ w i t he+ i n a d ­ v e r t e n te+ h a u g h t i n e s s .e+ ” F o r t ye+ d a y se+ m u s te+ ae+ k a H l aob [ c a r a v a n ]e+ t r a v e le+ b e f o r ee+ c a t c he$ i n ge+ s i g h te+ o fe+ i t se+ t o w e r s ,e+ a n de+ a n o t h e re+ f o r t y ,e+ m e ne+ s a y ,e+ b e f o r ee+ t h ee+ k a H l aob s t a n d se+ b e f o r ee+ t h e m .e+ I ne+ S i n – ie+ K a l a le+ Ie+ k n o we+ o fe+ n oe+ m Re+ w h oe+ h a se+ s e e ne+ i te+ o re+ s e e ne+ t h ee+ m Re+ w h oe+ h a se+ s e e ne+ i t : ‘e+ F o re+ o n ee+ m o m e n te+ t h ee+ f e a re+ o fe+ t h ee+ g r o s s l ye+ i n V n i t e ,e+ o fe+ m e r ee+ s p a c e ,e+ m e r ee+ m a t t e r ,e+ l a i de+ i t se+ h a n de+ o ne+ A v e r r o e s .e+ H ee+ l o o k e de+ a te+ t h ee+ s y m m e t r i c a le+ g a r d e n ;e+ h ee+ r e a l i z e de+ t h a te+ h ee+ w e+ o l d ,e+ u s e l e s s ,e+ ek r e a l .e+ T h e ne+ a b u – a l – D a s a ne+ s p o k ee+ a g a i n :e+ ” O n ee+ e v e n i n g ,e+ t h ee+ M u s l i me+ m e r c h a n t se+ o fe+ S i n – ie+ K a l a le+ c o n d u c t e de+ m ee+ t oe+ ae+ h o u s ee+ o fe+ p a i n t e de+ w o o de+ i ne+ w h i c he+ m a n ye+ p e r s o n se+ l i v e d .e+ I te+ i se+ n o te+ p o s s i b l ee+ t oe+ d e s c r i b ee+ t h a te+ h o u s e ,e+ w h i c he+ w a se+ m o r ee+ l i k ee+ ae+ s i n g l ee+ r o o m ,e+ w i t he+ r o w se+ o fe+ b i n e t – ee+ c o ney i v a n c e s ,e+ o re+ b a l c o n i e s ,e+ o n ee+ a t o pe+ a n o t h e r .e+ I ne+ t h e s ee+ n i c h e se+ t h e r ee+ w e r ee+ p e o p l ee+ e a t i n ge+ a n de+ d r i n k i n g ;e+ t h e r ee+ w e r ee+ p e o p l ee+ s i t t i n ge+ o ne+ t h ee+ c o o re+ a se+ w e l l ,e+ a n de+ a l s oe+ o ne+ ae+ r a i s e de+ t e r r a c e .e+ T h ee+ p e o p l ee+ o ne+ t h i se+ t e r r a c ee+ w e r ee+ p l ae; ge+ t h ee+ t a m b o u re+ a n de+ t h ee+ l u t e – a l l ,e+ t h a te+ i s ,e+ s a v ee+ s o m ee+ e e ne+ o re+ t w e n t ye+ w h oe+ w o r ee+ c r i m s o ne+ m a s k se+ a n de+ p r a y e de+ a n de+ s a n ge+ a n de+ c o n v e r s e de+ a m o n ge+ Y e m ­ s e l v e s .e+ T h e s ee+ m a s k e de+ o n e se+ s u U e r e de+ i m p r i s o n m e n t ,e+ b u te+ n oe+ o n ee+ c o u l de+ s e ee+ t h ee+ j l ;e+ Y e ye+ r o d ee+ u p o ne+ h o r s e s ,e+ b u te+ t h ee+ h o r s ee+ w a se+ n o te+ t oe+ b ee+ s e e n ;e+ t h e ye+ w a g e de+ AV ERR OES1 SE ARCH 239 h n t t l e , b u t t h e s w o r d s w e r e o f b a m b o o ; t h e y d i e d , a n d t h e n t h e y w a l k e d g n i n . ” ” T h e a c t s o f m a d m e n ; • s a i d F a r a j , ” a r e b e y o n d t h a t w h i c h a s a n e m a n . . » ( ! + l e n V I S I O n . ” T h e y w e r e n o t m a d m e n , ” a b u – a l – j a s a n h a d t o e l a i n . ” T h e y w e r e , a m e r c h a n t t o l d m e , p r e s e n t i n g a s t o r y . ” N o o n e u n d e r s t o o d , n o o n e s e e m e d t o w a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d . A b u – a l ­ l _ l a s a n , i n s o m e c o n s s i o n , s w e e d U o m t h e t a l e h e h a d b e e n t e l l i n g t h e m i n t o i n e p t e l a n a t i o n . A i n g h i m s e l f w i t h h i s h a n d s , h e s a i d : ” L e t u s i m a g i n e t h a t s o m e o n e s h o w sob a s t o r y i n s t e a d o f t e l l i n g i t – t h e o f t h e s e v e n s l e e p e r s o f E p h e s u s , s a y . * W e s e e t h e m r e t i r e i n t o t h e c a v ­ r n , w e s e e t h e m p r a y a n d s l e e p , w e s e e t h e m s l e e p w i t h t h e i r e y e s o p e n , w e s e e t h e m o w w h i l e t h e y a r e a s l e e p , w e s e e t h e m a w a k e n a B e r t h r e e h ­ d r e d n i n e y e a r s , w e s e e t h e m h a n d t h e m e r c h a n t a n a n c i e n t c o 7 , w e s e e t h e m a w e n i n p a r a d i s e , w e s e e t h e m a w a k e n w i t h t h e d o g . I t w a s s o m e ­ t h i n g l i k e t h a t t h a t t h e p e r s o n s o n t h e t e r r a c e s h o w e d u s t h a t e v e n i n g : ‘ ” D i d t h e s e p e r s o n s s p e a k ? ” a s k e d F a r a j . ” O f c o s e t h e y d i d ; ‘ s a i d a b u – a l – j a s a n , n o w b e c o m e t h e a p o l o g i s t b B a p e r f o r m a n c e t h a t h e o n l y b a r e l y r e c a l l e d a n d t h a t h a d i r r i t a t e d h i m ( o n s i d e r a b l y a t t h e t i m e . ” T h e y s p o k e a n d s a n g a n d g a v e l o n g b o r i n g s p e e c h e s ! ” ” I n t h a t c a s e , ” s a i d F a r a j , ” t h e r e w a s n o n e e d f o r , e n Zob p e r s o n s . A s i n ­ g l e s p e a k e r c o u l d t e ob a n y t h i n g , n o m a t t e r h o w c o m p l i t m i g h t b e . ” T o t h a t v e r d i c t , t h e y a l l g a v e t h e i r n o d . T h e y e x t o l l e d t h e v v t u e s o f A r a b i c – t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d b y A l l a h , t h e y r e c a l l e d , w h e n H e i n s t r u c t s t h e a n g e l a n d t h e n t h e p o e t r y o f t h e A r a b s . A B e r a c c o r d i n g t h a t p o e t r y i t s d u e p r a i s e , a b u – a l – k a s a n d i s m i s s e d t h o s e o t h e r p o e t s w h o , w r i t i n g i n C 6 r ­ d o b a o r D a m a s c u s , d u n g t o p a s t o r a l i m a g e s a n d B e d o v o c a b u l a r y ­ o u t m o d e d , h e c a l l e d t h e m . H e s a i d 3 w a s a b s u r d f o r a m a n w h o s e e y e s b e h e l d t h e w i d e G u a d q u i t o c o m p o s e o d e s u p o n t h e w a t e r o f a w e l l . I t w a s t i m e , h e a r g u e d , t h a t t h e o l d m e t a p h o r s b e r e n e w e d ; b a c k w h e n Z u h a y r w m p a r e d f a t e t o a b l i n d c a m e l , h e s a i d , t h e q g u r e w a s a r r e s t i n g – b u t q v e h u n d r e d y e s o f a d m i r a t i o n h a d w o r n i t v e r y t h i n . T o t h a t v e r d i c t , w h i c h 1 h e y h a d a l l h e a r d m a n y t i m e s b e f o r e , U o m m a n y m o u t h s , t h e y l l i k e w i s e g a v e t h e i r n o d . A v e r r o e s , h o w e v e r , k e p t s i l e n t . A t l a s t h e s p o k e , n o t s o m u c h t o t h e o t h e r s a s t o h i m s e l f . ” L e s s e l o q u e n t l y ; ‘ h e s a i d , ” 6 d y e t w i t h s i m i l a r a r g u m e n t s , Ie+ m y s e h a v e s o m e e s d e f e n d e d t h e p r o p o s i | o n a r g u e d n o w b y a b u – a l – k a s a n . Lob A l e x a n i a t h e r e i s a s a y 7 g t h a t o n l y t h e m a n w h o h S e a d y c o m m i e d a JORGE LUIS BOR GES c r i m e a n d r e p e n t e d o f i t i s i n c a p a b l e o f t h a t c r i m e ; t o b e ; e e o f a n e r r o ­ n e o u s o p i n i o n , I m y s e l f m i g h t a d d , o n e m u s t a t s o m e t i m e h a v e p r o f e s s e d i t . I n h i s m u a a q a ,ob Z u h a c s a y s t h a t i n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s e i g h t y y e a r s o f p a i n . d g l o r y m a n y i s t h e t i m e h e h a s s e e n d e s t i n y t r a m p l e m e n , l i k e a n o l d b l i n d c a m e l ; a b u – a l – $ a s a n s a y s t h a t t h a t 7 g u r e n o l o n g e r m a k e s u s m a T e l . O n e m i g h t r e p l y t o t h a t o b j e c t i o n i n m a n y w a y s . F i r s t , t h a t i f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p o e m w e r e t o a s t o u n d , i t s l i f e w o u l d b e n o t m e a s u r e d i n c e n t u r i e s b u t i n d a y s , o r h o u r s , o r p e r h a p s e v e n m i n u t e s . S e c o n d , t h a t a f a m o u s p o e t i s l e s s a n i n v e n t o r t h a n a d i s c o v e r e r . I n p r a i s e o f i b n – S h a r a f o f B e r k h a , i t h a s m . y t i m e s b e e n s a i d t h a t o n l y h e w a s c a p a b l e o f i m a g i n i n g t h a t t h e s t a r s o f t h e m o r n i n g s k y f a l l g e n t l y , l i k e l e a v e s f a l l i n g < o m t h e t r e e s ; i f t h a t w e r e t r u e , i t w o u l d p r o v e o n l y t h a t t h e i m a g e i s t r i v i a l . T h e i m a g e t h a t o n l y a s i n ­ g l e m a n c a n s h a p e i s a n i m a g e t h a t i n t e r e s t s n o m a n . T h e r e a r e i n 7 n i t e t h i n g s u p o n t h e e a r t h ; . y o n e o f t h e m b e c o m p a r e d t o a n y o t h e r . C o m p a r i n g s t a r s t o l e a v e s i s n o l e s s a r b i Y a r y t h a n c o m p a r i n g t h e m t o 7 s h , o r b i r d s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , e v e r y m a n h a s s u r e l y f e l t a t s o m e m o m e n t i n h i s l i f e t h a t d e s t i n y i s p o w e r > l y e t 1 u m s y , i n n o c e n t y e t i n h u m a n . I t w a s i n o r d e r t o r e c o r d t h a t f e e l i n g , w h i c h m a y b e : e e t i n g o r c o n s t a n t b u t w h i c h n o m a n m a y e s c a p e e x p e r i e n c i n g , t h a t Z [ a c ‘ s l i n e w a s w r i t t e n . N o o n e l e v e r s a y b e t t e r w h a t Z u h a y r s a i d t h e r e . F u r t h e r m o r e ( a n d t h i s i s p e r h a p s t h e e s s e n t i a l p o i n t o f m y r e : e c t i o n s ) , t i m e , w h i c h r a v a g e s f o r t r e s s e s a n d g r e a t c i t i e s , o n l y e n c h e sob p o e t r y . A t t h e t i m e i t w a s c o m p o s e d b y h i m i n A r a b i a , Z u h a c ‘ s p o e t r y s e T e d t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r t w o i m a g e V t h a t o f t h e o l d c a m e l a n d t h a t o f d e s t i n y ; r e p e a t e d t o d a y , i t s e r v e s t o r e c a l l Z u h a y r a n d t o c o n : a t e o u r o w n t r i b u l a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e o f t h a t d e a d A r a b . T h e 7 g u r e h a dob t w o t e r m s ; t o d a y , 3 h a sob f o u r . T i m e w i d e n s t h e c i r c l e o f t h e v e r s e s , a n d I m y s e l f k n o w s o m e v e r s e s t h a t a r e , l i k e m u s i c , a I t h i n g s t o a l l m e n . T h u s i t w a s t h a t m a n y y e a r s a g o , i n M a r r a k e s h , t o r t u r e d b y m e m o r i e s o f C 6 r d o b a , I s o o t h e d m y s e l f b y r e p e a t i n g t h e a p o s t r o p h e w h i c h b d – a l – R � s p o k e i n t h e g a r ­ d e n s o f a l – R u s a y f a h t o a n i c a n p a l m : T h o u t o o a r t , o h p a J ! , O n t h i s f o r e i @ e jeA . . .eA ” A r e m a r k a b l e g i = , t h e g i = b e s t o w e d b y p o e t r y – w o r d s _ i t t e n b y a k i n g h o m e s i c k f o r t h e O r i e n t s e r v e d t o c o m f o r t m e w h e n I w a s f a r a w a y i n A ; i c a , h o m e s i c k f o r S p a i n . ” T h e n A v e r r o e s s p o k e o f t h e 8 r s t p o e t s , t h o s e w h o i n t h e T i m e o f I @ o ­ r a n c e , b e f o r e I s l a m , h a d a l r e a d y s a i d a l l t h i n g s i n t h e i n 7 n i t e l a n g u a g e o f t h e d e s e r t s . A l a r m e d ( a n d n o t w i t h o u t r e a s o n ) b y t h e i n a n e v e r s i 9 c a t i o n s o f AV ERR OES’ SEAR CH i h n – S h a r a f ,ev h eev s a i dev t h a tev i nev t h eev a n c i e n t sev a n dev t h eev Q u r ‘ a nev c o dev a Nev p o e t r yev b eev nek a d ,ev a n dev h eev c o n d e m n e dev }ev i l t e r a t eev + dev v a i nev a l lev d e s eev t oev i n n o v a t e .ev y eev o t h e r sev l i s t e n e dev w i t hev p l e a s u r e ,ev f o rev h eev w a sev v i n d i c a t i n gev t h a tev w h i c hev w a sev o l d .ev M u e z z i n sev w e r eev c a l l i n gev t h eev f a i t h lev t oev t h eev p r a y e rev o fev , r s tev l i g h tev w h e nev A v eep r r o e sev e n t e r e dev h i sev l i b r | yev a g a i n .ev ( I nev t h eev h a r e m ,ev t h eev b l a c k – h a i r e dev s l a v eev g i r l sev h a dev t o r t u r e dev aev r e d – h a i r e dev s l a v eev g i r l ,ev b u t A v e r r o e sev w a sev n o tev t oev k n o wev t h a tev u n t ev V e n i n g . )ev S o m e t h i n gev h a dev r e v e a l e dev t oev h i mev t h eev m e a n i n gev o fev t h eev oev o b s c u r eev w o r d s .ev W i t hev , r m ,ev p a i n s t a k i n gev c a g r a p h y ,ev h eev a d d e dev t h e s eev 6 n e sev t oev t h eev m a n u s c r i p t :ev A r i s t uob [ A r i s t o t l e ]ev g i v e sob t h eob n a m eob ” t r a g e d y “ob t oob p a n e g r i c sob a n dob t h eob o n – w eob c o m e d y “ob t oob s a t i r e sob a n dob a n a t h e m a s .ob ( e r eob a r eob m a n yob a d m i r a b l eob t r a g e d i e sob – 9ob c o m e d i e sob i nob t h eob Q u r ‘ = nob a n dob t h eob m u ‘ a l l a q a tev o fob t h eob m o s q u e .ob H eev f e l tev s l e e pev c o m i n gev u p o nev h i m ,ev h eev f e l tev aev c h i l l .ev sev t u r b a nev u n w o u n d ,ev h eev l o o k e dev a tev h i m s e l fev i nev aev m e t a lev m i r r o r .ev Iev d oev n o tev k n o wev w h a tev e sev ^ b e h e l d ,ev f o rev n oev h i s t o r i a nev h a sev d e s c r i b e dev t h eev f o r m sev o fev e sev f a c e .ev Iev k n o wev t h a tev h eev s u d d e n l yev d i s a p p e a r e d ,ev a sev t h o u g hev a n n i l a t e dev b yev aev , r eev w i t h o u tev l i g h t ,ev + dev t h a tev w i t hev h i mev d i s a p p e a r e dev t h eev h o u s eev a n dev t h eev u n s e e nev f o u n t a i nev a n dev t h eev b o o k sev a n dev t h eev m a n u s c r i p t sev a n dev t h eev t u r t l e d o v e sev a n dev t h eev m a n yev b l a c k – h a i r e dev s l a v eev g i r l sev a n dev t h eev t r e m b l i n gev r e d – h a i r e dev s l a v eev g i r lev a n dev F a r a jev a n dev a b u – a l – a s a nev a n dev t h eev r o s e b u s h e sev a n dev p e r h a p sev e v e nev t h eev G u a d a l q u ien .ev I nev t h eev p r e c e d i n gev t a l e ,ev Iev h a v eev t r i e dev t oev n a r r a t eev t helev p r o c e s sev o fev f a i l u r e ,ev t h eev p r o c e s sev o fev d e f e a t .ev Iev t h o u g h tev , r s tev o fev t h a tev a r c h b i s h o pev o fev C a n t e r b u r yev w h oev s e tev h i m s e l fev t h eev t a s kev o fev p r oes i n gev t h a tev G o dev e x i s t s ;ev t h e nev Iev t h o u g h tev o fev t h eev a l c h e m i s t sev w h oev s o u g h tev t h eev p h i l o s o p h e r ‘ sev s t o n e ;ev t h e n ,ev o fev t h eev v a i nev t r i s e c t o r sev o fev t h eev a n g l eev u n dev s q u a r e r sev o fev t h eev c i r c l e .ev T h e nev Iev r e e c t e dev t h a tev aev m o r eev p o e t i cev c a s eev t h +ev 1 h e s eev w o u l dev b eev aev m +ev w h oev s e t sev h L s e l fev aev g o a lev t h a tev i sev n o tev f o r b i d d e nev t oev o t h e rev m e n ,ev b u tev i sev f o r b i d d e nev t oev h i m .ev Iev r e c a N e dev A v e r r o e s ,ev w h o ,ev b o u n d e dev w i t nev t h eev d r c l eev o fev I s l a m ,ev c o dev n e v e rev k n o wev t h eev m e a n i n gev o fev t h eev w o r d sev t r a g e d yob a n dev L w e d y .ob Iev t o l dev h i sev s t o r y ;ev a sev Iev w e n tev o n ,ev Iev f e l tev w h a tev t h a tev g o dev m e n t i o n e dev b yev B u rey t o nev m u s tev h a v eev f e l t – t h eev g o dev w h oev s e tev h i m s e l fev t h eev t a s kev o fev c r e a t i n gev aev b u l lev b u tev t u r n e dev o u tev aev beoeh J o .ev Iev f e l tev t h a tev t h eev w o r kev m o c k e dev m e ,ev f o i l e dev m e ,ev t h w a e dev m S I f e l tev t h a tev A v e r r o e s ,ev t r y i n gev t oev L a g i n eev w h a tev aev p l a yev w i t h o u tev e v e rev h a v f gev N u s p e c t e dev w h a tev aev t h e a t e rev i s ,ev w a sev n oev m o r eev a b s u r dev t h +ev I ,ev t reg gev t oev L a g f eev Aer c r r o e sev y e tev t hev n oev m o r eev m a t e r i a lev t h a nev aev f e wev s n a t e sev o mev R e n a n ,ev L a n e ,ev u n dev P a l a c i o s .ev Iev f e l t ,ev o nev t h eev l a s tev p a g e ,ev t h a tev m yev s t o r yev w a sev aev b o lev o fev t h eev m & n I h a dev b e e nev a sev Iev w a sev w r i t i n gev i t ,ev a n dev t h a tev i nev o r d e rev t oev w r i t eev t h a tev s t o r yev Iev h a dev h a dev t oev b eev t h a tev m a n ,ev a n dev t h a tev i nev o r d e rev t oev b eev t h a tev m a nev Iev h a dev h a dev t oev el i t eev t h a tev e, t o rew ,ev a n dev s oev o n ,ev a dob i n H n i t u m .ob ( A n dev j u s tev w h e nev Iev s t o pev b e 6 eei n gev i nev ,ev ” Aed e r r o e s “ev d i s a p p e a r s . )ev

Writerbay.net

We offer CUSTOM-WRITTEN, CONFIDENTIAL, ORIGINAL, and PRIVATE writing services. Kindly click on the ORDER NOW button to receive an A++ paper from our masters- and PhD writers.

Get a 10% discount on your order using the following coupon code SAVE10


Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper