Explain and discuss

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1 assignement : People are under the misconception that only living microorganisms can cause disease and death.  Viruses and prions are not considered to be living entities.  Why are they not considered to be living pathogens?  Choose an example and discuss it.

300 words 2 refrence 

2) assignment is to reply to each 3 different  discussion 85 words i will post the disscussion

1     Living microorganisms are known to be living due to being able to reproduce, causing disease and death, but also being beneficial towards Agriculture, Medicine, the Industry, and Environmental Sciences. 

These microorganisms are known as Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, Protists and Helminths. They are able to live without reproducing into intense viruses or infections but are known for being part of everyday life. Most living microorganisms have a nucleus, are able to process cell division, transport energy and reproduce in other ways whether sexual or asexual. 

Viruses and Prions are more known as nonliving microorganisms due to the fact that they lack a nucleus, don’t have their own cells hence they don’t have a membrane or organelles. They also feed off a host’s energy to stay alive and reproduce. These nonliving microorganisms can be killed or avoided through vaccinations or washing hands with soap and water. Soap is more effective than hand sanitizer, since it can break down the rough lipid outer shells of viruses or their coating also known as capsid and kills the virus.

An example of a nonliving microorganism would be one of the world’s most known viruses, Ebola. It has been around since 1976 and lead to many infections in several African countries. Ebola was known for being primarily carried in animals, but then scientists came to find that the virus could also infect people. The virus could be contracted through contact with blood, body fluids and tissue from animals. 

In order to prevent extreme affects such as death, a person would need to identify the virus as soon as possible to be treated properly and keep distance from others who are not infected. There are vaccinations and treatments approved by the CDC and FDA to keep protected and reduce harmful effects of the Ebola Virus.

student2   The reason why viruses and prions are considered to be non-living pathogens is due to the fact that when it comes to reproduce the viruses and prions must first intersect the reproductive equipment of a host cell, to obtain the genetic code and seal it inside a newly formed container, known as the capsid, but without a host cell virus nor prions are not capable of replicating themselves. Another vital reason of why they are not considered to be living it’s because they don’t have the need to consume energy in order to survive and are incapable of regulating its own temperature, unlike living organisms that meet their energy needs by metabolic processes that supply energy- rich units of ATP, the energy currency of life, viruses can survive on nothing.

            A good recent example of a non-living pathogen was the Covid 19 virus caused by the virus called SARS-CoV-2 that roots a variety of diseases from head or chest colds to more severe diseases like severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome and like many other respiratory viruses, coronaviruses spread quickly through droplets that you project out of your mouth or nose when you breathe, cough, sneeze, or speak. The name corona which means crown refers to the appearance that coronaviruses get from the spike proteins sticking out of them which contains proteins that are important to the biology of this virus and it allows to replicate inside of the host-cell and spread to other cells of the human. 

            Despite the fact that this virus can be easily spread and can kill vulnerable people, we can also help to prevent the spread of this virus such as the use of face masks, wash our hands regularly with soap and water, maintain a six feet away from others and finally to get vaccinated as soon as possible in order to obtain the necessaries antibodies against the virus. 

Student 3 Viruses and Prions are not considered living entities because they don’t contain properties of living things. They are a non-living collection of molecules that have no cells, require a host to survive, selective about where they live and reproduce, which may be in humans, plants, or animals. The pathogen discussed is Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), which is considered a prion and a rare and  rapidly worsening brain disorder that causes changes in brain tissues. This disease is rapidly progressive and always fatal. CJD is neurodegenerative disorder that is believed to be caused by an abnormal isoform of cellular glycoprotein that is known as a prion protein. Normal and harmless prion protein is found throughout the body but is most abundant in the nervous system. Its overall role is not fully understood by scientists; however, this abnormal folding is transmitted to normal prion proteins in surrounding nerve cells causing them to become infective and changed to one that results in the disease. Once they are formed, abnormal prion proteins clump together, which leads to nerve cell loss and other brain damage seen in CJD. The majority of the cases with people who suffer from CJD are roughly about 85% and it occurs sporadically. Additionally, 15% of the people who suffer from the disease have it because of inherited mutations of the prion protein gene.  Early symptoms of the disease may include lack of coordination, problems with walking and balance, impaired thinking, memory and judgement, behavior changes.  Progressive symptoms may include blindness, impaired mobility, pneumonia and other infections, and coma.  Some of these symptoms can be similar to other progressive neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s and Huntington disease. However, these symptoms tend to worsen in CJD than other types of dementia. Treatment of the disease remains supportive; however, no specific therapy has shown progress regarding the disease.


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