Exegetical Project. This project consists of reading three assigned commentaries on a passage of Hebrews and answering the provided questions on the basis of each commentary. For this portion of the p

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Exegetical Project. This project consists of reading three assigned commentaries on a passage of Hebrews and answering the provided questions on the basis of each commentary. For this portion of the project, you must select a passage to research for your exegetical project. Detailed instructions for each step of the Exegetical Project are attached, including the list of the 6 Hebrews passages you may choose from.

Exegetical Project. This project consists of reading three assigned commentaries on a passage of Hebrews and answering the provided questions on the basis of each commentary. For this portion of the p
Exegetical Project Instructions CHRI 4346: Letter to the Hebrews Over the course of this class, you will work towards completing an Exegetical Project. You will choose a passage of Hebrews from the provided list below, read three assigned commentaries on this passage, and answer the provided questions on the basis of each commentary. The project is comprised of 5 individual assignments: Module/Week 2 Hebrews Passage Selection Module/Week 4 Cockerill Summary Module/Week 6 Johnson Summary Module/Week 7 Witherington Summary Module/Week 8 Historical Meaning Summary and Reflection Hebrews Passage Selection (Module/Week 2) You must select a passage to research for your exegetical project. Please select one of the six passages in the list below. The interpretive questions for your passage are also listed below, sorted by passage. Once you have entered the assignment link in Blackboard, select the “Write Submission” icon by the Text Submission option. Simply type your chosen passage in the text box provided and submit. Submission of your chosen topic is worth 10 class points. Selection of your passage for the Exegetical Project is due by 11:59 p.m. (CST) on Sunday of Module/Week 2. Defeating the Devil (Hebrews 2:14–18) When the author says that the Son partook of flesh and blood (v14) and was made like his brothers (v18), does this imply the Son’s pre-existence? In the mind of the author, how did the Son’s death render the devil powerless (v14)? What does the author mean when he says that the devil has been rendered powerless? What does the author mean when he says that the devil “had the power of death”? What is the OT background for these ideas? What does the author mean when he says that the Son’s death “freed” those who were enslaved (v15)? What did their slavery consist of? What is it about the “fear of death” that caused them to be enslaved? What prompts the author to tell his audience that the Son/God does not give help to angels (v16)? Why does the author say that the Son/God gives help to the “descendants of Abraham” (v16)? Why is the figure of Abraham mentioned here? Who are the “descendants of Abraham” that the author has in view here? Why does the author not say that he gives help to “human beings”? Why does the author think that it was necessary for the Son to become like his brothers in all things in order for him to become a high priest (v17)? What does the author mean when he says that the priest makes propitiation for the people (v17)? What does the term propitiation refer to? Who are the “people” for whom he makes propitiation? In the mind of the author, when does the Son-priest make propitiation–at his death, or at his entry into heaven, or some other time? Two Unchangeable Things (Hebrews 6:13–20) What OT event(s) or passage(s) is the author referring to when he speaks of God’s promise or oath to Abraham (v13)? What passage is he quoting in v14? What events or actions does the author have in mind when he refers to Abraham’s “patient waiting” (v15)? What does the author mean when he says that Abraham “obtained the promise” (v15)? Does this refer to the promise itself or the thing promised? What are some options for identifying the two “unchangeable things” referred to in v18? What is the best option? What does the author mean when he says that “we” have “taken refuge”? Refuge from what? Is there any OT background to this? What is the “hope” mentioned in vv18–19? What is the meaning and function of the “anchor” metaphor in v19? What does the author mean by saying that it “enters within the veil?” What does the author mean when he calls Jesus “our forerunner”? (v20) Earthly and Heavenly Tabernacle (Hebrews 8:1–6) What does the author mean when he says that the Messiah is a minister in the “true tabernacle” (v2)? What is “true” being contrasted with here? What is the true tabernacle? What does the author mean when he says that the Lord, not man “pitched” the “true tabernacle” (v2)? Does the author believe that the heavenly tabernacle was created? What is the difference between “gifts” and “sacrifices” in v3? What is the logic of v4? Why can’t the Messiah be a priest on earth? In v5, the author calls the earthly tabernacle a “copy and shadow” of the heavenly? What do these terms mean and what is their background? Does the author believe that heaven actually is (or contains) a tabernacle? How is the author using the OT in v5? How does his use compare to that of his contemporary Jews? What does the author mean when he says that Jesus is a “mediator” (v6)? What are the “better promises” to which the author refers in v6? Cleansing the Heavenly Tabernacle (Hebrews 9:23–28) What OT texts/concepts is the author referring to when he speaks of the copies being cleansed by sacrifices? Is the author saying in v23 that the heavenly tabernacle and “things” were in some way defiled and thus needed to be “cleansed?” If so, how and why were they defiled? If not, what does he mean by “cleansing” them? What OT rituals are referred to in v25, which states that the high priest enters year after year with blood that is not his own? What does the author mean by the phrase “consummation of the ages” (v26)? Why is it important for him that Christ take up his priestly service at the consummation of the ages and not earlier or later? What does the author mean when he says that Christ has “put away” sins through his sacrifice (v26)? Is this synonymous with “forgiving” sins, or does it refer to something different? What event is the author referring to when he speaks of Christ being “manifested” in v26? Is this the incarnation, cross, resurrection, ascension, or something else? Does v27 mean that each person is immediately judged at his/her death? What is the logic of the comparison in vv27–28? Exhortation to Draw Near (Hebrews 10:19–25) What does the author mean by “confidence” in v19? Does v20 equate Jesus’ flesh with the veil? If not, how is the verse to be explained? What is the OT background for the phrase “having hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience” (v22)? Is there an OT background for the author’s statement about “bodies washed with pure water” (v22)? Does this refer to Christian water baptism? What does the term “draw near” mean (v22)? What is its OT background? What is the “holy place” in v19 which believers may enter? What kind of assemblies does v25 refer to? What does the author mean when he says that some are “neglecting” to assemble together? What does v25 tell us (if anything) about the audience’s situation? What is the “day” referred to in v25? Why does the author appeal to it as a motivation to encourage one another? Does the author believe that the day is close? Sinai and Zion (Hebrews 12:18–24) What is the OT background for each of the following elements in the author’s description (vv18–21) of the Sinai event? 1) able to be touched, 2) blazing fire, 3) darkness, 4) gloom, 5) whirlwind, 6) trumpet blast, 7) begging that no more be spoken, 8) Moses afraid and trembling. Is there an overall theme in the author’s description of Sinai? Why did he describe it in such terms? What is the OT background for the author’s reference to Mt. Zion? What does the author mean when he says that the audience “has come” to Mount Zion (v22)? In what sense have they “come?” Is this present, past, or future? Is it a specific event, place, or experience? Is Mount Zion the same as the heavenly Jerusalem, or heaven itself? What are the “spirits of the righteous made perfect” (v23)? Is this a reference to resurrected saints, OT saints, angels, saints in an intermediate state, etc.? What does it mean that the righteous have been “made perfect?” How can this statement be reconciled with Hebrews 11:40? What does the author mean when he speaks of “the general assembly and the church of the firstborn” (v23)? What is the author’s overall point in contrasting the phenomena of Sinai with that of Zion? What does the author mean when he says that the “sprinkled blood” (of Jesus) “speaks better than the blood of Abel” (v24)? What is the OT and intertestamental background to this statement? Commentary Summaries (Module/Week 4, 6, and 7) For this portion of the assignment, you will carefully read sections from the Cockerill, Johnson, and Witherington commentaries that are relevant to your chosen passage of Hebrews. You should have already purchased Gareth Lee Cockerill’s commentary (The Epistle to the Hebrews) from the HBU Bookstore prior to the start of this class. The other two commentaries can be accessed for free through the following permalinks. Since these links lead you to the online Moody Library, you may be prompted to sign in with your HBU username and password. Luke Timothy Johnson: Hebrews: A Commentary. Permalink: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/houstonbaptist-ebooks/reader.action?ppg=1&docID=3416802&tm=1523738123796 Ben Witherington III, Letters and Homilies for Jewish Christians: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary on Hebrews, James, and Jude. Permalink: http://libproxy.hbu.edu/login?url=https://search-ebscohost-com.libproxy.hbu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=684476&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_1 For each commentary summary, please keep the following instructions in mind: Summarize (do not quote verbatim) their respective positions on each interpretive question for your passage (see above) as well as the reasons/evidence they give for their positions. Cite page numbers parenthetically. (e.g. Witherington 245). Please be aware that in some of these commentaries, there may be more than one section on each passage. You will need to consult all the sections to ascertain the commentator’s position. In order to answer a question sufficiently, you may need to consult other parts of a commentary (e.g. parallel passages, surrounding passages, etc.). You do not need to state your own opinions in this section. You should attempt only to represent as faithfully as possible the opinion of each commentator. You must submit each commentary summary as a Microsoft Word document, double-spaced, with 12-point Times New Roman font and 1” margins. No title page or reference page is required. You should cite the commentary you are referring to using parenthetical citations (e.g. Witherington 245). A reasonable length for each commentary summary is 500-750 words. Please review the example of the required layout below. A summary of Cockerill’s commentary on your chosen passage of Hebrews is due by 11:59 p.m. (CST) on Sunday of Module/Week 4. A summary of Johnson’s commentary on your chosen passage of Hebrews is due by 11:59 p.m. (CST) on Sunday of Module/Week 6. A summary of Witherington’s commentary on your chosen passage of Hebrews is due by 11:59 p.m. (CST) on Sunday of Module/Week 7. Commentary Summary Example [THE INTERPRETIVE QUESTION] (e.g. Does the author of Hebrews indicate in this verse that angels have six wings or only two?) Commentator (e.g. Witherington) Ariel S. Tupedmann interprets the author as saying in this verse that angels have six wings, two for flying, two for directional control, and two defensive measures. To establish his interpretation, Tupedmann points to a) the grammar of the passage, b) the use of the word ‘wing’ in other ancient literature, and c) the Jewish background of the angel-wingedness-concept. He finds a) that the grammar of the passage indicates that though the author refers to only two wings explicitly, the use of the partitive genitive leaves open the possibility of the two wings being two of six wings altogether (346); b) that the word ‘wing’ used by the author refers in ancient literature to appendages not necessarily used for aerial transportative activity (347-48); c) that in the Jewish pseudepigraphical apocalyptic midrashim angels are typically pictured as having six wings, each set with a different function. The author of Hebrews is steeped in the Jewish apocalyptic tradition; thus, Tupedmann reasons that the author would assume the angelology common to that tradition (351). [THE INTERPRETIVE QUESTION] Commentator …… Historical Meaning Summary and Reflection (Module/Week 8) For the final part of the project, you will provide your own interpretation of the passage based on your own reflection and on what you have learned from your research in the commentaries and throughout the course. Use your newly acquired understanding of the passage to summarize in one or two paragraphs the historical, contextual meaning of your passage (in your own opinion). This section should answer the questions: What was the author trying to say to his original audience in this passage? What was he trying to persuade his audience to think or do? For the historical meaning summary and reflection, please keep the following instructions in mind: You must submit each commentary summary as a Microsoft Word document, double-spaced, with 12-point Times New Roman font and 1” margins. No title page or reference page is required. You should cite any references using parenthetical citations (e.g. Witherington 245). Your submission should consist of at least 500 words. The Historical Meaning Summary and Reflection is due by 11:59 p.m. (CST) on Sunday of Module/Week 8. Example Summary of the Passage’s Historical Meaning WRONG: God tells us here that Christ is our high priest and intercedes for us. The Lord is warning us that if we ignore this fact and try to earn our way into heaven, we will perish. We can only enter into the throne room of God if we follow Jesus and have him as our high priest. RIGHT: In this passage, the author reminds his audience that the Messiah has been appointed as high priest of the heavenly tabernacle. He urges his audience not to ignore this fact and warns his audience that if they attempt other means of access to the heavenly tabernacle (such as those proposed by their Jewish brothers), they will perish. He attempts to persuade his audience not to allow persecution from the Jewish synagogue or the Roman Empire to turn them back from their confession of Jesus as Messiah. CHRI 4346 | Hebrews Page 7 of 7

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