Events of instruction presentation assignment

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Events of Instruction

Presentation Assignment

(this assignment is a 2 part assignment)

Part 1:(Is already completed, Attaching power point as well(for part 1). Please use that power point to make the edits and create word document for part 2)

1. Select a presentation you previously completed – it can be any type of presentation where you 

presented, taught a lesson, conducted instruction.

2.  Add speaker notes to the presentation exactly how you presented it or as a close to it as you 

remember, lesson plan or instructional plan you created for that presentation. 

4.  Submit the Powerpoint with speaker notes and the Presentation Review Assessment.

Part 2:


After learning about how different ages learn, review your presentation where you presented, 

taught a lesson, conducted instruction presentation (the one you previously submitted and re-work 

your presentation to how you would present it now.  You must choose and identify the learning 

style that your new presentation will model. 

  1. Write a 2-4 page events of instruction paper, single spaced, 12 point Arial font on how you used the 

domains of learning, 5 pillars of learning and the cycle of learning to improve each Event of 


Ballet Dancers

Importance of Sports Nutrition for Ballet Dancers

– improved performance

– prevent injury

– overall health and well being

– adequate intake for carbohydrates, protein, fat, and hydration for rigorous training performance and schedules.

Hello everyone, welcome to the presentation on the importance of sports nutrition for ballet dancers. Today, we will be discussing the role of nutrition in optimizing performance and preventing injuries in ballet dancers.

Why is cross-training important?2

– Increase strength and stamina

– Capable, stable, and expressive in performance

– Strong foundation of body awareness

– Endurance and resilient as dance becomes challenging

– Reduces risks for injury

many dancers who cross train report not only increased strength and stamina, but also feeling more capable, stable, and expressive in their performance. Not only does it build on their strong foundation of body awareness, but it can provide critical endurance and resilience as dance becomes more challenging.

A typical day for dancer!1

– Dancing is a day job

– Hour long class

– Four to six hours of rehearsal

– Two hour evening performance

What do dancers do when they aren’t on stage?

Dancing is their “day” job.
Dancers’ lives are full of daily ballet technique classes and rehearsals. A typical workday starts with an hour-long class, followed by four to six hours of rehearsal, often concluding with a two-hour evening performance.

Energy Needs

Recommended Carbohydrate intake

3-5 g/kg is recommended3

Moderate – intensity training program 60 min/d6

5-7 g/kg

Moderate to high intensity exercise 4-5 h/d6

8-12 g/kg

– Roughly 65% during extremely intense training and rehearsing3

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under

To perform at their best, dancers need to be well-fuelled (i.e. they need to eat the right balance of carbohydrate, fat, protein, micronutrients, and fluids). A low caloric intake will not only compromise energy availability, it may also lead to an under-ingestion of many micronutrients that could affect performance, growth and health. As the primary source of energy for muscles, carbohydrate intake should be raised to roughly 65% during ext,remely intense training and rehearsing. Due to low levels of muscle glycogen, a dancer’s ability to perform will be compromised if they do not consume enough carbohydrates. During lessons and rehearsals, they could feel more burned out.


Recommended Protein intake7

– Endurance type of training

– 1.2 -1.7 g/kg

12- 15%3

Consumption of protien is crucial3

To repair protein muscle damage3

This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under

For all professional athletes and dancers, consuming enough protein is crucial. Even if you don’t intend to gain muscle, you still need protein to repair the damage


Recommended Fat intake3


Saturated fat – <20%

1.2 g of fat per kg of body weight is required

Fatty acids are an energy source for muscles for endurance activities or long rehearsals

A diet too low in fat can have serious health consequences and ultimately can impair performance

bout 1.2 grams of fat per kilogram of body weight is thought to be necessary. The recommended daily intake of saturated fats is less than 10% because excessive consumption of these fats has been linked to chronic disease.

During exercise, triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids, which the body converts to energy. Fatty acids are an energy source for muscles for endurance activities or long rehearsals where the body is continuously exercising for over 20 minutes at a time. A diet too low in fat can have serious health consequences and ultimately can impair performance.


Iron is crucial for hemolysis

Vitamin C is important to absorb iron

Calcium is crucial for skeleton to prevent injury

Vitamin D for muscle function and performance (deficiency is higher)

Dancers who severely restrict their caloric intake, practice extreme weight reduction, cut out one or more food groups from their diets, or eat imbalanced diets low in micronutrient density are most at risk of having poor micronutrient status. In these situations, dancers might benefit from a daily multivitamin supplement, at least until the dietary problem is fixed.

Sodium ingestion during exercise is recommended when large sweat loss is occurred

Side effects of dehydration




Joint and muscle soreness



-Drink 5-10 mL/kg of water per body weight 2-4 h before exercise

1kg lost requires 1.25-1.5 L fluid consumption

-Monitor urine color for fluid status

For the best dance performance and mental clarity, staying hydrated is crucial. The daily fluid requirement for an average adult is 2 L. Dancers need more because they lose more fluids while exercising. Fluid losses can reach 2 L/hr during a demanding training session or lengthy rehearsal. Dancers may feel symptoms such as overall fatigue, sluggishness, headaches, lightheadedness, or nausea as a result of dehydration, which makes exercising harder and slows down performance levels. Observing the color of the urine is a pretty easy technique to keep track of the fluid condition. Dark yellow denotes dehydration, while pale yellow shows adequate hydration.


1 and 4 g of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight 1 to 4 hours beforehand to improve glucose availability

Consume 5 to 7 mL/kg of fluid steadily, at least 4 hours prior to exercise – Drinking a sports beverage that contain carbohydrates

Dancers should drink an additional 3 to 5 mL/kg around two hours prior to the event if they do not generate urine or if it is dark or very concentrated

Drinks should contain between 20 and 50 mEq/L of sodium.

Nutrition for training4

Similar to those for other sports, the nutritional objectives for meals and snacks before, after, and during training are similar.

A breakfast or snack should have enough fluid to maintain hydration before exercise and should be relatively low in fat and fiber to speed up gastric emptying and lessen gastrointestinal irritation. Additionally, it should have a moderate protein content, be well tolerated by the dancer, and be reasonably high in carbohydrates, preferably with a low to moderate glycemic index to maximize blood glucose maintenance.

During Exercise4

Replenish fluid losses and provide carbs (about 30 to 60g/h) for blood glucose management

Depending on how intense the workout is, 150 to 350 mL every 20 minutes are advised

Monitor body weight before and after the workout

Dancers should aim to maintain a 2% weight reduction per session and avoid both overhydration, which can result in temporary weight gain, and dehydration

Fluid replacement drinks are advised to contain 2 to 5 mEq/L of potassium and 20 to 30 mEq/L of sodium.

The primary nutritional objectives during exercise, especially if it lasts more than an hour, are to replenish fluid losses and replenish carbohydrates.

Dancers should drink enough water while exercising to keep their body mass from dehydrating by more than 2%, and sodium should be added when sweat losses are large, especially if exercise lasts more than two hours

One practical way to make sure the right amount of fluids were consumed during exercising was to measure body weight before and after the workout. Dancers should aim to maintain a 2% weight reduction per session and avoid both overhydration, which causes temporary weight gain, and dehydration.

Why consume carbohydrates during exercise?4

– delay fatigue

– reduces muscle glycogen depletion

– maintains blood glucose

– influences cognition, mood, motivation, and motor skill performance

The consumption of carbohydrates during exercise has been proven to postpone exhaustion, possibly by preventing the loss of muscle glycogen and by keeping blood glucose levels high, which is a crucial energy source for both muscle and the brain.

After exercise4

In the early stages of recovery, 0.8 g of carbs and 0.2 to 0.4 g of protein per kilogram per hour should be consumed.

The first meal should be consumed in the first 30 minutes and then every 2 hours for the next 4 to 6 hours

Protein consumed after exercise will provide amino acids for building and repair of muscle tissue

Rehydration should include replenishing salt and water lost through sweat.

Dietary objectives after exercise include supplying enough fluids, electrolytes, carbs, and proteins to restore muscle glycogen and promote quick recovery.

It has been suggested that 0.8 g of carbs and 0.2 to 0.4 g of protein be consumed at frequent intervals during the early stages of recovery in order to ensure a normal healing process.  The first meal should be consumed during the first 30 minutes and then again every 2 hours for 4 to 6 hours.

Following exercise, protein consumption will give muscles the amino acids they need to grow and heal. Replacement of both the water and salt lost through sweat should be done when recovering from exercise. The dancer will need to drink more fluid to make up for fluid losses that will continue during the recovery phase from urine losses and ongoing sweating.

Nutrition for competition4

The last meal should be consumed 1 to 2 hours before the performance

Dancers should bring their own food and drink to prevent GI issues

To guarantee adequate recovery, have food as soon as possible after the performance

Dancers may experience complete tiredness in the days leading up to competitions or stage performances, even though fluid or fuel reserves may not be threatened as routines are typically brief and moderate to low intensity. Especially if dancers are reducing their nutritional intake, dancers may find that when having to attend lengthy rehearsals over multiple days, their muscles are almost completely exhausted of glycogen. Therefore, it is crucial to make sure that an adequate food intake is being accomplished even though there may not be a need to carbohydrate load to prepare for an event.

A full stomach  is not preferred by athletes before and during competition or stage performances.  switching to a low residue diet for the final 24 hours prior to the event as one possible tactic to lower the stomach and intestinal contents. On the day of the event, the last meal should be consumed four hours before the performance if it was a heavy dinner, or one to two hours if it was a snack.


Caffeine consumption can have positive benefits even at relatively low doses (1 to 3 mg/kg body mass)

Sport foods and nutritional supplements, such as multivitamins and mineral supplements, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, can be utilized to achieve a nutritional goal, including the prevention or treatment of a nutritional deficiency

The utilization of these substances is only to be taken into consideration when it is a part of a professionally supervised approach that also includes healthy eating habits and the right medical care for any underlying conditions.

Sport foods and nutritional supplements, such as multivitamins and mineral supplements, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, can be used to achieve a nutritional goal, including the prevention or treatment of a nutritional deficiency. These items, however, have a justifiable purpose in dance. When used as part of a professionally supervised strategy that also includes healthy eating habits and the proper care for any medical conditions, these substances should only be taken into consideration. Sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements are additional dietary aids that can be used to help individuals meet certain dietary objectives.

potential ergogenic aid is caffeine. One of its possible positive effects is the changed perception of weariness and effort, which enables the dancer to engage in better and more reliable training/performance. Also, caffeine can improve alertness, reaction time, and visual information processing.

Body Composition/weight changes5

– Maintain physiological requirements of a healthy body
– The aesthetic aim of thinness to achieve optimal onstage performance
– Usage of the Biolectrical impedance analysis
– Assessement of lean body and fat free mass
– Female athlete triad

The ideal body composition is the means for fulfilling both the physiological requirements of a healthy body and the attractive aim of thinness to achieve maximum onstage performance for dancers

Lean and thin bodies are often regarded as being more favorable to artistic expression and the creation of strong  balletic moves . However, elite level ballet students and dancers are at danger Energy Deficiency in Sport because to their constant pursuit of the “perfect” body physique as well as other factors like high training demands and a competitive environment. Beyond the original Female Athlete Triad concept, this syndrome is defined by poor physiological function with detrimental health and performance effects. Low bone mineral density (BMD), altered metabolism (e.g., decreased resting metabolic rate (RMR)), changes in hormone levels, and impaired menstrual function

In comparison to other techniques, the bioelectrical impedance analysis has a number of benefits, including being quick, portable, simple to use, and requiring little operator training.

Individual body composition can be evaluated using this technique, which includes measurements of total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), fat free mass (FFM), body cell mass (BCM), and body fat (BF)


FAQs – KC ballet – professional dance company in Kansas City. KC Ballet. 2022. Accessed August 14, 2022.

Razmus A. A dancer’s guide to cross training: Benefits, goals, and considerations. Competitive Edge. 2021. Accessed August 14, 2022.

Iadms, Author IADMS IADMS is dedicated to improving the health, IADMS IADMS is dedicated to improving the health, Iadms, IADMS is dedicated to improving the health, IADMS Vmore from. Fuelling the dancer ” ausdance: Dance advocacy. Ausdance. 2012. Accessed August 14, 2022.

Sousa M, Carvalho P, Moreira P, Teixeira VH. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers. Medical Problems of Performing Artists. 2013;28(3):119-123. doi:10.21091/mppa.2013.3025

Gammone MA, D’Orazio N. Assessment of Body Composition and Nutritional Risks in Young Ballet Dancers – The Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. J Electr Bioimpedance. 2020;11(1):26-30. 2020. doi:10.2478/joeb-2020-0000

Coleman E. Carbohydrate and exercise. Karpinski C, Rosenbloom CA, eds. Sports Nutrition: A Handbook for Professionals. 6th ed. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2017: 22.

Burd N, Phillips M. Protein and exercise. Karpinski C, Rosenbloom CA, eds. Sports Nutrition: A Handbook for Professionals. 6th ed. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; 2017: 52.

McCormack MC, Bird H, de Medici A, Haddad F, Simmonds J. The Physical Attributes Most Required in Professional Ballet: A Delphi Study. Sports Med Int Open. 2018;3(1):E1-E5. 2018 . doi:10.1055/a-0798-3570







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