Final Multimedia Presentation:
Each student will create a final multimedia presentation that explores one of the topics/or themes discussed in USA, Africa and the World I. Review the course syllabus for the remaining topics.
Select a topic based on the course syllabus.
Step Two: Start research to create an annotated bibliography. The annotated bibliography explains each sources, and explains how you will use the source in the final, multimedia presentation. Annotations are short paragraphs that explain each source. You need a minimum of six sources including university presses books, scholarly journals, and digital sources. Both course texts (the Strayer textbook and the US, Africa and the World Reader are required sources). No “wikis” or online encyclopedia should be included. Include a short introduction to your project, including an explanation of the time period and a defined thesis statement, which explains the central point of your project. Format according to MLA, APA or CMS style of citation.
You need at least one book published by a university press, two scholarly journal, two digital sources, and one primary source.
Step Three: Create a multimedia project using one of these modalities:
Power Point, Poplet, Prezi, Tour-Builder, or Voice-Thread.
All seven sources must be used in the final presentation, and must include a thesis statement, historical evidence, photos, and text. All sources must be used at least one. Footnotes or endnotes are required. Format according to MLA, APA or CMS style of citation, including a bibliography. Due via CANVAS the last day of class. Presentations must include:
A thesis statement
An explanation of continuity and change over time
Topic’s contribution to the study of world history.
Minimum of ten slides with references.
A bibliography slide.
Include footnotes or end notes throughout the presentation.
Clark Atlanta University
His 201—U.S., Africa, And The World To 1500
Paper Proposal, Fall 2016
Dr. Aubrey Underwood
According to Ayres (2016), life on Earth started more than three billion years ago, developing from the most fundamental of microorganisms into a stunning array of multifaceted nature after some time. The starting point of life is a logical issue which is not yet comprehended. There are a lot of thoughts, yet few clear realities.
Generally, it is believed that all life today developed by normal plummet from a solitary primitive form of life. Researchers believe it was a characteristic procedure which occurred around 3,900 million years ago. This is as per a theory referred to as naturalism: just common causes are conceded.
It is not known whether genetics or metabolism came first. The fundamental speculation which underpins hereditary qualities first is RNA world theory, while protein world speculation supports digestion. How cells grow is considered another huge issue. Every single existing forms of life are developed out of cells.
Compared to the way things are presently, the primitive earth is considered as different. There were most likely numerous seas and oceans with numerous hot vents at the base of these waters and a lot of volcanic action ashore. Most likely, the climate had water, methane, alkali, and hydrogen, dissimilar to our flow air, which is generally oxygen and nitrogen.
Phases of Early Life on Earth
Since we have a concept of what Earth may have resembled, how about we make a glance at what strides researchers have speculated prompted early life. It is concurred by researchers that there exists four primary stages to how life originated from non-living things (Ayres, 2016). The initial phase that little natural atoms – for example, amino acids that create nucleotides and proteins that are part of DNA – were created. Whereas these natural atoms exist in living things, they are not really living organisms themselves but simply particular mixes of components.
The second phase is that these little natural particles consolidated to create bigger atoms. The little atoms are referred to as monomers in the light of the fact that they comprise of only one unit. Nonetheless, when they combine, they make polymers that contain numerous rehashing units (Oparin, 2003). One might have the capacity to recollect this due to the prefixes. For instance, “mono” signifies “one” – such as in the words monocle and monorail – whereas “poly” signifies “numerous” – for instance, in polymorph and polygon (Chen & de Vries, 2016).
In the third phase of early life on Earth, things begin to get somewhat dubious. The polymers that were shaped from the monomers gathered together to frame photobionts. In comprehension of early life, photobionts are very imperative. The term photobionts actually signify an ‘early form of life.’ However, they are essentially little droplets having membranes that can keep up a steady inward environment. Photobionts resemble cells, in that they can recreate, metabolize, and also react to their surroundings (Ayres, 2016). Numerous experiments have demonstrated that these pre-cell structures can suddenly develop.
These uncomplicated photobionts developed to deliver hereditary data. Photobionts are able to replicate – this means that they are capable of making new photobionts. In any case, the fundamental unit of life that is the cells are exceptional in that they can recreate and carry on hereditary information generations to generations, can metabolize energy and matter, and can develop. These basic cells were made from complex atoms that were made from basic particles, then kept on developing into a wide assortment of life structures.
Hypotheses on the Starting point of Life
Lightning might have given the flash required for life to start. Electric flashes can produce sugars and amino acids from an atmosphere stacked with methane, water, alkali and hydrogen, as was demonstrated in the popular Miller-Urey test that was reported in the year 1953, proposing that lightning may have assisted the key building pieces of life on Earth in its initial days (Oparin, 2003).
To begin with, the researchers expected to choose how to make a contraption that reproduces the states of early Earth while keeping it independent. They chose a structure that resembles the photo to one side. We can see that there are territories for the reenacted air and for the supplement rich primordial soup. There were a few fixed valves incorporated into their outline so as to consider the position of gasses for the climate and additionally places to gather the gasses and substances made.
Over a large number of years, bigger and more intricate atoms could develop. In spite of the fact that research from that point forward has uncovered the early air of Earth was really hydrogen-poor, researchers have proposed that volcanic mists in the early environment may have held ammonia, methane and hydrogen been loaded with lightning also.
The principal particles of life may have met on mud, as indicated by a thought expounded by natural physicist Alexander Graham Cairns-Smith. These surfaces may have concentrated these natural mixes together, as well as sorted out them into examples much like our qualities do currently.
The principle function of DNA is to store data on how different particles ought to be arranged. Hereditary successions in DNA are basically guidelines on how amino acids ought to be organized in proteins (Chen & de Vries, 2016). Cairns-Smith proposes that mineral gems in mud could have arranged natural particles into sorted out examples. Before long, natural atoms assumed control over this occupation and sorted out themselves.
This is the thought that Arrhenius suggested and Fred Hoyle developed. They argued that life grew somewhere else in the universe and touched base on Earth as spores. This is not a hypothesis of how life started, but rather a hypothesis of how it may have spread. It might have spread, for instance, by shooting stars (Chen & de Vries, 2016).
Some recommend that initial Mars was a superior spot to begin life than was the initial Earth. The atoms which consolidated to create hereditary material are multifaceted than the “primordial soup” of carbon-based chemicals that were there on Earth 4 billion years back. In the event that RNA was the main hereditary material, then minerals containing molybdenum and boron could help its development. The two minerals were a great deal more normal on Mars compared on Earth (Oparin, 2003).
This hypothesis proposes that life might have started at submarine aqueous vents regurgitating fundamental hydrogen-rich particles. Their rough alcoves might then have brought these atoms together and gave mineral impetuses to basic responses. Indeed, these vents, even now, rich in thermal and chemical energy maintain energetic environments.
There exists no “standard model” that explains the manner in which life began. Many of the acknowledged models are based on atomic science and cell science: Since there exist correct conditions, some fundamental little particles are formed. They are referred to as the monomers of life. An example of these particles includes amino acids. It is believed that the Early Earth might have had every one of them.
Ashton, J. F. (2012). Evolution Impossible: 12 Reasons Why Evolution Cannot Explain the Origin of Life on Earth. New Leaf Publishing Group. (Ashton, 2012)
For many years the theory of evolution has been adopted to account for the origin of life on earth. It has been used in many fields and disciplines in education to teach on the life on earth and the adaptation of the various organisms to their environment.
The book is objected with the argument on the impossibility of evolution in explaining the issue on the origin of the earth. The author raises reasons arguing against the theory by Charles Darwin on the matter of evolution.
The book raises scientific evidence or points in other cases the lack of scientific support in the event of evolution as the source of life on earth. It provides a great way to the approach of explaining on the origin of life on earth by making the reader think critically on the issue of evolution before accepting it as the explanation for the origin of life on earth.
Bada, J. L., Jr., B. F., Miller, S. L., Lazcano, A., Cleaves, H. J., Hazen, R. M., . . . Huber, C. (2007, February 16). Debating Evidence for the Origin of Life on Earth. Science: commentary, pp. 937-939. (Bada, et al., 2007)
The journal focuses on explaining the origin of life on earth by considering two main theories and discussion on the probity of one being the most efficient in explaining the concept of the origin of life. The two theories are “the pioneer metabolic theory” and “the prebiotic soup theory.” The former is based on explaining the origin of life based on a hot volcanic origin explanation while the latter focusses on explaining the source through the concept of cold organic source.
The journal therefore takes a neutral ground and focusses on the evidence that would support each of the theories and therefore determine the most probable among the two. The importance of the journal is he adoption of the neutral ground which enables the concepts and the evidence on each of the theories to be laid out effectively and efficiently to support each theory to determine which of them is the most likely to have explained the concept of life on earth effectively.
Carl Johan Calleman, P. (2009). The Purposeful Universe: How Quantum Theory and Mayan Cosmology Explain the Origin and Evolution of Life. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. (Carl Johan Calleman, 2009)
The book adopts an entirely scientific approach in explaining the origin of life on earth by using the quantum theory and Mayan cosmology approaches in explaining this concept. Other than just explaining the origin of life, it also goes a step further to account for the reason behind the modern adaptation of various organisms to their current habitat. It also bases the explanation on an evolution of the organisms and life. The book also explains the origin and evolution of the biological consciousness and life by basing the comment on the cosmic tree of life concept.
This book offers an alternative explanation to the evolution theory b basing the statement on the new discoveries made on the cosmology and the understanding of the Mayan calendar.
Martin, W., Baross, J., Kelley, D., & Russel, M. J. (2008). Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 805-814. (Martin, Baross, Kelley, & Russel, 2008)
The concept of the paper is based on the hydrothermal vents on submarines and how they harbor various life communities. The concept can be developed to explain the scientific approach to explaining the origin of life in organisms. It is mainly based on the chemistry approach of teaching the concepts in discussion.
Using the hydrothermal concepts, the chemistry of life can be explained and ideas on the origin of life on earth devised or explained in details. The concept is still being developed and has formed a basis for major discussions in the chemistry and biology section.
Ricardo, A., & Szostak, J. W. (2009). Origin of Life on Earth. Scientific American, 54-61. (Ricardo & Szostak, 2009)
The article is based on examining the source of life on earth on scientific contribution sector. It rests on the discovery by a researcher on the possibility of genetic molecules RNA being formed from first either element composition. This has resulted in the development of the article to relate the two. The potential of organisms exhibiting the RNA molecules in mating and producing into new organisms have not been ruled out. Based on this discovery, scientists have embarked on research to modify and work on synthetic organisms’ development using the concept. The paper builds on this continuing research to explain the origin of the current life and organisms on the earth. The research, however, is based on the possibility of having an original body in the earth. It is based mon the modification and the diversifying of the different organisms that today inhabit the earth.
Zimmer, C. (2009). On the Origin of Life on Earth. Science, 198-199. (Zimmer, 2009)
The paper is based on the exploits of Zimmer in recreating the concept of Darwin theory in the laboratory as a celebration of the theory initially suggested by Charles Darwin. The theory f evolution has been discussed over a long time ad has formed most of the researches on the concept of an organ of life on earth. Zimmer uses this approach to explain the authenticity of the theory by recreating this event I the laboratory. The article appears in a general publication based on defining the root of the life on the earth on the general journal titled science that explains general scientific concepts.
This article can be seen as a support for the concept of the evolution theory initially opposed in this paper.
Ashton, J. F. (2012). Evolution Impossible: 12 Reasons Why Evolution Cannot Explain the Origin of Life on Earth. New Leaf Publishing Group.
Ayres, R. (2016). The Origin of Life. In Energy, Complexity and Wealth Maximization (pp. 121- 164). Springer International Publishing.
Bada, J. L., Jr., B. F., Miller, S. L., Lazcano, A., Cleaves, H. J., Hazen, R. M., . . . Huber, C. (2007, February 16). Debating Evidence for the Origin of Life on Earth. science: commentary, pp. 937-939.
Chen, I. A., & de Vries, M. S. (2016). From underwear to non-equilibrium thermodynamics: physical chemistry informs the origin of life. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18(30), 20005-20006.
Carl Johan Calleman, P. (2009). The Purposeful Universe: How Quantum Theory and Mayan Cosmology Explain the Origin and Evolution of Life. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co.
Martin, W., Baross, J., Kelley, D., & Russel, M. J. (2008). Hydrothermal vents and the origin of life. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 805-814.
Ricardo, A., & Szostak, J. W. (2009). Origin of Life on Earth. Scientific american, 54-61.
Zimmer, C. (2009). On the Origin of Life on Earth. Science, 198-199.
Oparin, A. I. (2003). The origin of life. Courier Corporation.