There are 9 post listed below and I only need a 100 word response for each one of them.
1.Hotels operate primarily by providing services to guests but the services are predicated upon material goods like buildings, rooms, beds and linens. reverse logistics activities still revolve around the reuse or recycle of goods though their supply chain. The most visible examples are how they decrease environmental impacts form their activities like washing linens and towels and how they treat garbage. Just less than 80% of travelers stated the eco-friendly practices put forth by hotels are very important to their lodging choice (Raham, Park & Chi, 2014). Hotels can take steps like placing recycle bins in rooms or reducing the energy used in or partner with guests to reuse linens and towels. Hotels are unique in that many of their reverse and green logistics practices involve not only their staff but their guests as well (Raham et al., 2014). The towel reuse campaign that is seen in most lodgings attempts to encourage guests to reuse towels versus getting fresh ones everyday which gives the image that hotels are attempting to be green however they also benefit largely from the cut to reverse logistics costs. The attempt to look as if actions are eco-friendly but are actually just a measure to save costs is known as green washing (Raham et al., 2014). Green washing can be quite devastating to a company because they are taking advantage of their customers trust and good will. Nearly half of Americans have no trust for company’s green claims and 77% are willing to boycott is they fell they are misled regarding green initiatives (Raham et al., 2014).
Recycling programs are result in less cost saving for the hotel but still have positive environmental impact so these types of programs are less likely to cause guests to second guess the motive behind the program. Recycling programs like the one at DoubleTree are available in some hotels but have not been adopted by as many as the linen/towel reuse program. The disparity between the adoption of each of the programs shows some inconsistencies is actual commitment to lowering emissions. Reducing water usage on the landscaping also benefits the hotel by eliminating the need to for labor to keep grass mowed which would also raise concerns by some that the real motive behind the initiative is cost savings versus environmental care. More capital intensive like solar panel which would allow for natural energy to be used are scares but room sensors that turn off guests ACs when motion is not detected are plentiful. As in one example, the dog left in the hotel room was not big enough to activate the senor and so the room heated while the owner was away (Kite-Powell, 2011). Hotels currently use more than 50% as much energy compared to a similar residential square footage and typically have 50% vacancy on average (Kite-Powell, 2011). Hotels must to a better job of lowering energy consumption and reverse logistics costs without burdening their guests while not misrepresenting efforts that are really only designed to help their bottom line.
2. In the service sector, particularly hotels, reverse logistics combines with green logistics. Verma (2014) discusses a green supply chain management as being a global attention getter within the service sector. “Green supply chain management = green purchasing + green manufacturing / materials management + green distribution / marketing + reverse logistics” (Verma, A.S., 2014, p. 13). As hotel become more luxurious, the focus on reverse logistics processes come to the forefront in capturing the customers interest of the hotel and what actions are being taken to thwart environmental impacts. When hotels are sensitive to the customers needs, trust and brand loyalty may keep them coming back. The customer may even spread some positive word of mouth comments to friends and associates creating a type of reverse flow of consumers.
Reverse logistics for the hotel industry can include services that the consumer may not see. Activities such as recycling used water through treatment facilities which can be used for heating rooms, reusing runoff pool water to maintain beautification areas within the hotel grounds, harvesting rain water, using waste paper products for fuel / heating, and refurbishing televisions, minibars, carpets, towels and hotel linens (Verma, A.S., 2014). Displaying hanging recycling information banners on room doors, the bathroom towel rods, and on the bed linens gives the consumer the opportunity to partake in positive environmental impacts by saying “yes, I’ll reuse my towel another day” and shows the consumer just how much effort is being applied to reducing their environmental impacts.
The use of laundry carts for collecting and laundering not only bath towels but bed and table linens is a form of reverse logistics. The carts can be considered reusable packaging as they move both soiled and cleaned items to and from the production facility (laundry room) to the end user (room occupant). Sustainability is also a factor that contributes to positive reverse logistics programs within the hotel industry. The use of LED lighting, recycled stationary and other items in rooms, and the use of alternative & sustainable energy sources such as wind turbines and solar panel systems all contribute to reduced carbon footprint. The use of reusable recycling containers as part of the program are used for storage of waste and can be switched out when needed at regular intervals and can be leased and hauled by a waste hauler or intermediate processor (Townsend, J.M., 1993).
3. Although hotels provide a service and not a product there are many ways they can run an effective reverse logistics. Some ways are properly disposing of food if they provide food services, some hotel asks to save water and help the environment to hang towels if the customer does not want it wash, efficient fixtures, or recycle waste. Reverse logistics is considered a strategy for developing sustainable supply chains. Companies are focusing on sustainability because of stricter environmental regulation and legislation, and the growing competition based on cutting costs and reducing wastes. A sustainable supply chain aims to deliver quality products and services across the supply chain while increasing
effectiveness, reducing waste and costs, and being environmentally responsible (Al-Aomar & Hussain, 2015, p. 11).
Recycling is a great way for the hotel to have an efficient reverse logistics program and support the environment. Saving energy has a positive benefit to the environment and recycling is an
important tool in conserving energy. When energy is saved, greenhouse gases and pollutants
such as nitrous and sulfur oxides associated with acid rain are reduced and ash disposal
problems are reduced (Townsend, 1993, p.11). Hotels that participate in recycling programs will have recycling trash bin throughout premises, place recycling placards in room informing guests on ways they can help and involving employees in the process.
Managing waste is another important way hotels can have an effective reverse logistics program. Hotels have a great amount of tangible and intangible wastes from hotel services such as accommodation, dining, laundry, and hosted events. Food, materials, papers, pollution, electricity and energy, and water are also included (Al-Aomar & Hussain, 2015, p.12).
Most of the hotel industry participate in reverse logistics by going green. A green supply chain is an important logistics and supply chain strategy, that helps companies achieve profit and market share by using green practices. Hotels daily services activity from providing food, water, and accumulating waste allow many ways for them to have a reverse logistics program.
4. Risk analysis regularly is conducted with qualitative and quantitative risk analysis. Both can be conducted at the same time while there’s no particular order that they must be conducted. Many times, project managers can’t seem to understand the difference between the two-risk analysis.
It’s very important to understand the difference between qualitative and quantitative risk analysis. Qualitative risk analysis act as an alert to management and anyone else exposed to them. This method will help identify issues within projects to eliminate the cause of risks ensuring safety. An advantage to qualitative risk analysis can be using software as project managers can have a bias perception when it comes to making decisions. When using a database, it’s easy to remove the human factor in the risk as theirs no emotional attachment.
Quantitative risk analysis is a little more focused on implementing safety measures that have already been established which helps protect the more defined risk. If a company uses this analysis they can create specific interpretation and clearly represent risk solving for projects. This approach seems to be the more popular of the two by management personnel since it’s based on metrics. This type of risk analysis can’t function properly without detailed previous historical data. This data needs constant updates and inputs. Software can be used to import data from qualitative charts and also simulations to decision makers to understand how to mitigate the risk.
In the military we used Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) for planning and assessing risk. This process provides leaders the proper methodology to understand the situation and mission to develop course of actions and produce warning orders and operation orders.
5. Managers can plan for risks using quantitative values, with concepts rated and assigned numerical value according to probability and severity to define risk value and determine organizational impact (Morgan & Henrion, 2007). Summing up quantitative risks in numbers prepares a valuable estimate and prediction of what will happen when problems arise. Applying values makes it easier to learn from and prevent mistakes in the future (Morgan & Henrion, 2007). Dealing with numbers for evaluation and estimation can change mitigation strategies and planning, reducing unwanted outcomes and occurrences and quickly resolve complex problems (Morgan & Henrion, 2007). Qualitative figures further allow for establishing standards that can then be analyzed along with historical data to quantify risks and apply guidelines to minimize risk in varying scenarios. Triggers such as sustainability, productivity and incentives can influence stakeholder confidence and obligations to risk mitigation (Rebs, Brandenburg, Seuring & Stohler, 2017).
These concepts come into play frequently in my job as we deal with policy and procedures for materiel management. All possibilities and scenarios must be considered and then balanced to determine the best final policy. The wording and directions must be precise because any ambiguity and there will be completely different methods implemented. We track numbers on everything we manage. Response and resolution, dates, issues, amounts, frequencies, all with the goal to prevent repeat dilemmas. I am in a constant state of problem solving and conflict resolution.
6. Numerically estimating the probability that a project will meet its objectives is known as quantitative risk analysis. Techniques such as the Monte Carlo analysis – a risk quantification that simulates a model’s outcome to provide statistical calculated results are powerful tools for analyzing risk and uncertainty. Invented by scientists in developing an atomic bomb, this technique was named after the city in Monaco that is known for its casinos and games of chances. Using such a method in risk assessments explores the behavior or outcomes of how a complex process or system works (Yang, Yeh, & Ho, 2015). It is important for companies to understand the risks they face when analyzing risks in their reverse supply chain. Identifying risks is crucial for understanding the impacts that reverse logistics may have. Through risk identification, risk mitigation is assessed. In risk mitigation, there are two types of approaches, one being quantitative and the other being qualitative. Quantitative risk analysis assigns values, numbers, and figures to quantify results. Probability and statistics is widely used in assessing a project. Results give probability of occurrence of risks, however, it is not always possible to quantify all risks, as some are not quantifiable. This, nonetheless, proves to be advantageous as results give a clearer picture of how processes will or will not work (Salunke, Shah, & Kaur Grewal, 2009).
The airport is a complex system, and each facility is an important component in the system. Each component influences the airport operation to some extent and is prone to making accidents happen. Working as an Airport Operator, one of the primary objectives is to identify risks and mitigate possible outcomes. Any accident may lead to unpredictable fatal and/or economic loss. Therefore, identifying risks and measuring risk values objectively is a major task to deal with in airport safety management. In order to improve airport safety, establishing risk management mechanisms to monitor and improve risks assessment are the only solutions. On the other hand, the probability of an aviation accident is very low, therefore, it is difficult and complex to properly explain, locate, and manage overall aviation safety. However, through quantitative assessment of risks, it becomes somewhat more manageable to assess results (Feng & Chung, 2013).
7. There is a growing concern about the way that freight activity in general contributes to the overall air quality and air pollution in the United States (FHWA, 2017). While the overall amount of particulates per mile and per freight ton have been decreasing, the overall amount of emissions has been rising due to robust growth in the freight industry, which the study blames partially on lax enforcement of some emissions laws (FHWA, 2017). There is particular concern over the way that transport via trucks or locomotives are contributing due to the tendency for these trucks to have diesel engines, and those kinds of engines tend to have a higher release of air pollutant particle in general (FHWA, 2017). While I will say that I find such things troubling, the paper does outline an overall increase in fuel efficiency standards that may help things slow down or reverse in terms of pollution in the long run (FHWA, 2017). Trucks in particular are probably a necessary evil for some time to come due to the simple fact that trains carry a good deal more cargo at a time, but getting access to various manufacturers and suppliers can be difficult. Our railway system is simply probably not going to be as robust as our highway system for some time, if ever. I am optimistic about newer technologies like solar or electric vehicles, but I have yet to hear of an engine with the power that would be needed to properly serve a tractor trailor.
8. In my current job, there are many sustainment parts that are required to go from CONUS to OCONUS to support 24/7 operational systems. The support contractor has primarily wanted to use airlift in order to resupply parts based on the speed and convenience it provides, however, this is much more costly and limited in amount than the use of surface modes. The primary surface mode to support these operations is sealift, which includes vessels such as Container and Roll-on/Roll-off (RORO) vessels. There’s a reason the term ‘slow-boat’ is used when in comparison to airlift, however, if properly planned, surface modes can save the Department of Defense (DoD) significantly when it comes to funding.
Since cost savings for the surface vessel mode is a realized benefit, it is also beneficial to determine the Direct, Indirect, and Cumulative impacts on the environment that it may have (Korpinen, & Andersen, 2016). One challenging part of managing environmental concerns with sea transport, is that sea vessel operations are regulated by international, national, and regional entities.
For direct impacts of sea vessel transport, the location of ports can have environmental and social impacts as ports are generally located near populated cities. This port activity can result in increased air and water emissions, erosion to the channel ways due to dredging and beach erosion with waves, and noise pollution. (Andersson, Baldi, Brynolf, Lindgren, Granhag, & Svensson, 2016). Vessel transport can also effect the marine life directly by disrupting sea eco systems, release and burning of emissions, and the misfortunate oil and fuel spills which can immediately kill marine biology.
The indirect impacts of sea cargo transport can be related to unknown emission substances that are not fully yet researched into how they interact with or affect marine biology. Substances such as sulfur and nitric oxides can potentially interact with vital nutrients in the sea causing unknown disruptions (Viana, 2014). These interactions, along with the direct impacts, can develop into more long lasting cumulative impacts.
Cumulative impacts can be a result of continued disturbance of sea eco systems which could permanently disrupt marine life and eco systems overtime. The release of emissions into the waterways and air are always a building concern for cities and population safety and health.
Sea vessels are still the choice for bulk cargo being delivered internationally with the lowest offered cost. With all modes of transport, identifying and addressing the impacts that sea transport has to the environment is the first step to finding improved solutions.
9. Direct Impact: This is more of a cause and effect impact on something. A great example would be an oil spill in a bay such as Tampa Bay. The cause would be an oil spill from an oil tanker. The effect would be the fish population in the bay dying off.
Indirect Impact: An example of this would be, because of the oil spill restaurants do not have any fish to serve to its customers. This is more of a secondary effect. From our reading this week it says that indirect impact can be a little harder to detect.
Cumulative Impact: This would be something such as Siegel’s that are depended on the fish population for the majority of their food. If the fish die then the Siegel’s would die as well, leaving a ripple effect in the ecosystem.
The distinctions that can be made between all 3 categories is that they all have a slightly different effect on the environment, but can all be link to one another. With the examples that I gave, it is clear that they all had a negative effect on the environment.
In addressing this question, choose one mode of transportation and give concrete examples and facts that support your points.
The mode of transportation that I have chosen to write about is road transport. Transporting freight and car pollution has a negative effect on air quality. When I was station in Seoul, South Korea, the amount of vehicles within that city was extremely high. The city of Seoul has a population of 9.774 million people (South , 2018, p. 17). This has made the traffic very similar to what we see in New York City. I myself have had the experience of breathing the poor air quality of Seoul. The air quality was so bad there that I had to go to the doctor to receive an inhaler. It was even recommended that I walk around with a mask over my face to act as a filter. The air quality had a direct impact on my health and many others that lived in Seoul, South Korea.
Have you ever experience poor air quality and if so how did you deal with it to overcome the problem?