Answer the correct answer for each question with the explanation of the correct answer and cite evidence.
1. Anthropologists distinguish between egalitarian societies, which includes_______ and ________ , and inegalitarian societies, including________ and_______ -level societies.
2.The Kwakwaka’wakw potlatch is an example of ___________ reciprocity.
3.Beginning in the late 1970s, China’s “Great Migration” is the largest internal migration in human history; between 1978 and 2012, 260 million Chinese workers migrated from primarily rural agrarian communities to urban factory cities. What term from Marx’s theory of capitalism best describes this process by which workers transition from producing their own goods to selling their labor in factories? A. Proletarianization, B. Structural Violence, C. Domestic labor
4. The Indian caste system has existed for more than 2,000 years. Although the case system was officially abolished in 1950, only about 5% of Indian marriages are inter-caste, that is, are between two people from different castes. Which of the following anthropological concepts best describes these inter-caste marriages? A. Endogamous, B. Exogamous, C. Polyandrous
5. French historian and philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) theorized that power shifts over time in relation to major cultural transformations. For example, Foucault argued that in contrast to modern forms of hegemonic power, earlier European kingdoms were dominated by a single supreme authority whose power was visible and often relied on physical violence to maintain legitimacy. What term did Foucault use to define this mode of power common in Medieval or Feudal Europe? A. Cultural heremony, B. Reverse Dominance, C. Sovereighn power
6. Given the prevalence of patrilocal post-marital residence and patrilineal descent cross-culturally, what can be concluded about the gendered structures of power in most societies? A. Matriarchies were most common in hunter-gatherer societies, however patriarchies have been dominant since the agricultural revolution. B. Unless a culture is matrilineal and matrilocal, men have more power than women in most human societies. C. Patriarchal societies are much more common than matriarchal societies.
7. Alicia and Darius were married for six years before separating and divorcing; a few years later, Alicia met Lamonte, and the pair eventually married. What form of marriage does this cultural example best represent?
For Questions 8-10, refer to the image below. Ego refers to the person for whom this kinship chart is based; your responses should be in relation to the greyed-out triangle. On this kinship chart, triangles refer to males, and circles refer to females. Read each question carefully.
8. Ego lives with his wife, their children, his parents, his paternal grandmother, and his paternal uncle (as well as his uncle’s wife and two children). An anthropologist would classify this marital residence pattern as: A. Matrilocal residence, B. Bilocal residence, C. Patrilocal residence
9. In Ego’s culture, it is expected that he (Ego) will eventually take a second wife. This marriage custom is referred to as: A. Polygyny, B. Pologamy, C. Polyamory
10. What anthropological term refers to the part of Ego’s family that is contained in the square? A. Consanguineal kin, B. Extended family, C. Affinal kin
11. The process of evolution is the same for cultures as it is for biological organisms. True or False
12. Both polygamy and polygyny refer exclusively to marriages between one man and multiple women. True or False
13. Traditionally, the Māori (New Zealand) were organized into tribes, iwi, based on shared ancestry. Each iwi pledged allegiance to one or more ariki, who were considered hereditary nobility and were believed to possess religious and spiritual authority over the wider populace. This ethnographic illustration exemplifies which type of social organization identified by anthropologists? A. Stratified societies, B. Ranked societies, C. Egalitarian societies
14. In most matrilineal societies, the maternal uncle is expected to care for his sister’s children more than his own, however in most patrilineal and bilateral kinship systems the role of “father” is more important than “uncle.” What anthropological term refers to the different status and positional significance of uncles in these different descent systems? A. Subject position, B. Family of procreation, C. Avunculocal
15. Amber and Leslie have been married for six months. At first, the couple lived with Amber’s parents to save on rent, however after Leslie found a job closer to her family the newlyweds moved in with Leslie’s mother. What type of post-marital residence does this situation describe? A. Neolocal, B. Bilocal, C. Avunculocal
16. The Kula is a system of economic exchange practiced in the Trobriand Islands where trading partners exchange_________ and ________between islands.
17. Which of the following best describes the economic mode of production throughout the European Middle Ages (ca. 400-1600 CE)? A.Capitalist, B. Communist, C.Tributary
For Questions 18-20, refer to the image below. Ego refers to the person for whom this kinship chart is based; your responses should be in relation to the triangle labeled “EGO.” On this kinship chart, triangles refer to males, and circles refer to females. Read each question carefully, and pay close attention to the numbers associated with each individual and which shapes have been filled in blue.
18. On this kinship diagram, the individuals with whom Ego shares a common lineage are shaded in blue. Based on this chart, what type of descent pattern does Ego’s culture have? A. Matrilineal descent, B. Patrilineal descent, C.Bilateral descent
19.In Ego’s culture, it is expected that he, his parents, his wife and their children, his brother (and his wife and children), and his son (and his wife and children) all live in the same household. This type of family structure refers to the: A. Polygamous family, B. Nuclear family, C. Extended family
20.In relation to Ego, what kinship term best describes the individuals numbered 19, 20, 27, and 28? A. Chosen kin , B.Affinal kin, C. Cross-cousin
21.Class systems are mostly found in which type of societies? A. Authoritarian societies, B. Stratified societies, C. Egalitarian societies
22.Which of the following ethnic groups best represents a modern tribal society? A. Navajo/Diné (U.S.), B. Kwakwaka’wawk (U.S./Canada), C.Basseri (Iran)
23. Which of the following is NOT a form (or mode) of exchange? A. Redistribution, B. Generalized reciprocity, C.Subsistence farming
24. Identify the Foucaultian concept in action when your professor asks you to put your cellphone away during class and you do, even though your really want to keep texting your friend. (It’s not like your professor can physically make you put it away, yet for some reason you do…) A. Positive reinforcements, B.Hegemonic power, C. Sovereign power
25. Chen and Kimiko have been in a relationship for years and have decided to get married. For their engagement, Chen gives Kimiko an expensive diamond ring. This economic exchange is an example of: A.Tributary, B. Bridewealth, C. Reciprocity
26.The anthropological definition of matriarchy (or matriarchies) are societies in which women have more power than men. True or False
27. Most capitalist or industrialized societies value domestic labor as much as, if not more than, primary or paid labor. True or False
28. Traditional Tiv (Nigeria) spheres of exchange challenge the presumption that all objects are commensurable through general purpose money. The Tiv possessed three distinct economic spheres. The (1) Economic sphere, which included foods and household items; the (2) second sphere, which included items ranging from enslaved persons to white cloth to cattle; and (3) the most prestigious sphere, which was limited to__________ . Notably, both _______ and________ were excluded from Tiv spheres of exchange.
29. Ghost marriages, such as those practiced by the Nuer (Sudan), Japanese, and Mormons (U.S.) are each an example of what kind of marriage practice? A. Monogamous marriage, B. Polygamous marriage, C.Symbolic marriage
30.The ancient city-state of_______, located near modern St. Louis, possesses features typical of both ranked and stratified societies, and thus has sparked debates as to whether it ought to be classified as a “chiefdom” or “state.”
31. In the Iroquois kinship terminological system, different categories for kin are determined based on gender and side of the family. For example, mother and mother’s sister will share the same kin term, as will father and father’s brother, however sister’s brother and father’s sister will have distinct terms. This terminological practice is known as: A. Endogamous merging, B.Bifurcate merging, C. Collateral merging
32. Which of the following ethnic groups challenge the presumptive belief that all societies idealize, or even have a conception of, “marriage?” A. Masaai, B. Yanomami, C.Na (Mosuo)
33.The Bribri are the largest Indigenous population in Costa Rica, with an estimated population of 10,000. Bribri society is organized into matriarchal clans, and property and titles are passed down solely through the female lineage. What descent pattern does this best represent? A.Patrilineal, B. Bilateral, C. Matrilineal