Answer each of the following questions in 250 words.
Cite any references to support your answers.
Format your citations according to APA guidelines.
1. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of having formalized procedures for improving the effectiveness or efficiency of innovation?
2. What factors should a firm consider when deciding how centralized its research and development (R&D) activities should be? Should firms employ both centralized and decentralized R&D activities?
3. Why is the tension between centralization and decentralization of R&D activities likely to be even greater for multinational firms than firms that compete in one national market?
4. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the transnational approach advocated by Bartlett and Ghoshal?